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Unchecked aggression and violence exact a significant toll on human societies. Aggression is an umbrella term for behaviours that are intended to inflict harm. These behaviours evolved as adaptations to deal with competition, but when expressed out of context, they can have destructive consequences. Uncontrolled aggression has several components, such as(More)
In addition to its role in blood vessel and macrophage function, nitric oxide (NO) is a neurotransmitter found in high densities in emotion-regulating brain regions. Mice with targeted disruption of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) display grossly normal appearance, locomotor activity, breeding, long-term potentiation and long-term depression. The nNOS- mice are(More)
Basal plasma corticosterone levels in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are extremely high, in the absence of any apparent negative consequences of glucocorticoid excess. We tested the hypothesis that prairie voles are a novel rodent model of target tissue resistance to glucocorticoids. Prairie voles had a significantly higher adrenal-to-body weight(More)
Winter is energetically demanding. Physiological and behavioral adaptations have evolved among nontropical animals to cope with winter because thermoregulatory demands increase when food availability decreases. Seasonal breeding is central within the suite of winter adaptations among small animals. Presumably, reproductive inhibition during winter conserves(More)
Although seasonal changes in brain morphology and function are well established in songbirds, seasonal plasticity of brain structure and function remain less well documented in mammals. Nontropical animals display many adaptations to reduce energy use to survive winter, including cessation of reproductive activities. Because of the high energetic costs of(More)
Energetic demands are high while energy availability is minimum during winter. To cope with this energetic bottleneck, animals exhibit numerous energy-conserving adaptations during winter, including changes in immune and reproductive functions. A majority of individual rodents within a population inhibits reproductive function (responders) as winter(More)
BACKGROUND Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated as a mediator of penile erection, because the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (NOS) is localized to the penile innervation and NOS inhibitors selectively block erections. NO can also be formed by two other NOS isoforms derived from distinct genes, inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS). To clarify(More)
The erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal protein 4.1 (4.1R) is a structural protein that confers stability and flexibility to erythrocytes via interactions with the cytoskeletal proteins spectrin and F-actin and with the band 3 and glycophorin C membrane proteins. Mutations in 4.1R can cause hereditary elliptocytosis, a disease characterized by a loss of the(More)
Recent pharmacological and genetic studies have dramatically expanded the list of neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines, enzymes, growth factors, and signaling molecules that influence aggression. In spite of this expansion, serotonin (5-HT) remains the primary molecular determinant of inter-male aggression, whereas other molecules appear to act indirectly(More)
Animals must balance their energy budget despite seasonal changes in both energy availability and physiological expenditures. Immunity, in addition to growth, thermoregulation, and cellular maintenance, requires substantial energy to maintain function, although few studies have directly tested the energetic cost of immunity. The present study assessed the(More)