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The efficiency of wastewater treatment systems in removing pharmaceuticals is often assessed on the basis of the decrease in the concentration of the parent compound. However, what is perceived as "removal" during treatment may not necessarily mean mineralization of the pharmaceutical compound but simply conversion into different transformation products(More)
  Advanced oxidation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in wastewater produces transformation products (TPs) that are often more biodegradable than the parent compounds. Secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant was treated using UV-based advanced oxidation (LPUV/H2O2 and MPUV/NO3) followed by biological aerated filtration (BAF), and(More)
R-503 is an azeotropic mixture of CFC-13 and HFC-23. It is widely used in low temperature cascade refrigeration systems. Due to the ozone depletion effects of the CFCs including CFC-13, R-503 production has been banned. An environmentally acceptable nonflammable replacement for R-503 is needed with refrigeration properties similar to R-503. We describe(More)
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