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The tetrapeptide, endomorphin-2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-PheNH2) possesses high affinity for mu opioid receptors, and produces potent analgesia in mice. Its structure appears to satisfy the substrate requirements of the proteinase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV which removes dipeptides from the amino terminus of peptides containing proline as the penultimate amino acid. A(More)
The opioid peptide, Orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N(1-17))(,) its active fragments, and a related precursor peptide each produce analgesia following microinjection into the amygdala of rats. OFQ/N(1-17)-induced analgesia elicited from the amygdala is blocked by amygdala pretreatment of either general, mu, kappa, or delta-opioid antagonists even though(More)
Orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N), the endogenous ligand for the orphan receptor-like/kappa(3)-like opioid receptor clone, produces a variety of behavioral responses, including those associated with pronociception and antinociception. The OFQ/N precursor rattus-proOFQ (rppOFQ/N) contains several paired basic amino acids, which raises the possibility that(More)
The heptadecapeptide, orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N), binds with high affinity to the ORL-1/KOR-3 opioid receptor clone, yet binds poorly with traditional opioid receptors. OFQ/N has a complex functional profile with relation to nociceptive processing, displaying pro-nociceptive properties in some studies, acting as an inhibitor of stress-induced analgesia(More)
Male rodents display greater systemic morphine antinociception than females which show their most marked effects during late diestrus or proestrus. Morphine (1-2.5 mug) antinociception on the tail-flick test elicited from the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray was examined across estrus phases in female relative to male rats. Morphine antinociception was(More)
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