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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate recognition of a wide range of microbial products including lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, flagellin, and bacterial DNA, and signaling through TLRs leads to the production of inflammatory mediators. In addition to TLRs, many other surface receptors have been proposed to participate in innate immunity and microbial(More)
We recently demonstrated the pivotal role of the transcription factor (TF) activating TF 3 (ATF3) in dampening inflammation. We demonstrate that ATF3 also ameliorates allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of human asthma. ATF3 expression was increased in the lungs of mice challenged with ovalbumin allergen, and this(More)
During normal contractions of vertebrate striated muscle, it is believed that the cross-bridges which produce the sliding force undergo asynchronous cyclical changes in their structure. Thus, an X-ray diffraction diagram from a muscle under these conditions will give structural information averaged over the whole range of cross-bridge states. Such diagrams(More)
Macrophages play a critical role in both innate and acquired immunity because of their unique ability to internalize, kill, and degrade bacterial pathogens through the process of phagocytosis. The adaptor protein, amphiphysin IIm, participates in phagocytosis and is transiently associated with early phagosomes. Certain pathogens, including Chlamydia(More)
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