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Child undernutrition is a major public health challenge, estimated to be responsible for 2.2 million annual deaths. Implementation of available interventions could prevent one-third of these deaths. Emerging evidence suggests that breast-feeding can lead to improvements in intelligence quotient in children and lower risks of noncommunicable diseases in(More)
Federal and other regulatory agencies often use or claim to use a weight of evidence (WoE) approach in chemical evaluation. Their approaches to the use of WoE, however, differ significantly, rely heavily on subjective professional judgment, and merit improvement. We review uses of WoE approaches in key articles in the peer-reviewed scientific literature,(More)
The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) estimates of the benefits of improved air quality, especially from reduced mortality associated with reductions in fine particle concentrations, constitute the largest category of benefits from all federal regulation over the last decade. EPA develops such estimates, however, using an approach little changed(More)
BACKGROUND Public disclosure of scientific data used by the government to make regulatory decisions for chemicals is a practical step that can enhance public confidence in the scientific basis of such decisions. OBJECTIVES We reviewed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) current practices regarding disclosure of data underlying regulatory and(More)
Since 1981, federal executive agencies have assessed the costs and benefits of proposed Federal regulations under various Presidents' Executive Orders. Dating to President Reagan's Executive Order, the requirement for benefit-cost analysis and coordinated White House review does not extend to independent regulatory agencies such as the Securities and(More)
61. We thank T. Rajapandi for construction of the N96C mutant of B. subtilis SecA; H. Ding for advanced access to the single-tryptophan substitution mutants of E. Goldsmith lab groups for advice and for assistance with crystallographic data collection. We also thank W. Hendrickson for a critical review of the manu-High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS); and(More)
ON 7 MAY 2004, Science published the Report “RNA-mediated metal-metal bond formation in the synthesis of hexagonal palladium nanoparticles” by Lina A. Gugliotti, Daniel L. Feldheim, and Bruce E. Eaton (1). After an investigation by the U.S. National Science Foundation’s (NSF’s) Office of Inspector General, NSF did not find that the authors’ actions(More)