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To identify environmental carcinogens there is a need for inexpensive and reliable short-term tests, but certain human or animal carcinogens are persistently undetectable as mutagents with the Ames assay or with other short-term tests currently in use. Thus there is a need for short-term tests which detect carcinogens missed by the Ames assay. Because of(More)
Understanding how proposed medical devices will interface with humans is a major challenge that impacts both the design of innovative new devices and approval and regulation of existing devices. Today, designing and manufacturing medical devices requires extensive and expensive product cycles. Bench tests and other preliminary analyses are used to(More)
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