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Retinal rods respond to light with a membrane hyperpolarization produced by a G-protein-mediated signalling cascade that leads to cyclic GMP hydrolysis and the consequent closure of a cGMP-gated channel that is open in darkness. A protein that forms this channel has recently been purified from bovine retina and molecularly cloned, suggesting that the native(More)
Voltage-dependent G-protein inhibition of N-type calcium channels reduces presynaptic calcium entry, sharply attenuating neurotransmitter release. Studies in neurons demonstrate that G-proteins have multiple modulatory effects on N-type channels. The observed changes may reflect genuine complexity in G-protein action and/or the intricate interactions of(More)
Odorant signal transduction occurs in the specialized cilia of the olfactory sensory neurons. Considerable biochemical evidence now indicates that this process could be mediated by a G protein-coupled cascade using cyclic AMP as an intracellular second messenger. A stimulatory G protein alpha subunit is expressed at high levels in olfactory neurons and is(More)
The recognition of odorants by olfactory receptors represents the first stage in odor discrimination. Here, we report the generation of an expression library containing a large and diverse repertoire of mouse olfactory receptor sequences in the transmembrane II-VII region. From this library, 80 chimeric receptors were tested against 26 odorants after(More)
The olfactory neuroepithelium undergoes continual neurogenesis and, after extensive lesions, fully regenerates to maintain sensory function. The stem cell population underlying this regenerative capacity remains elusive. Here we show that mouse horizontal basal cells (HBCs) function as adult olfactory neuroepithelium neural stem cells and examine their(More)
Nitric oxide is a messenger molecule, mediating the effect of endothelium-derived relaxing factor in blood vessels and the cytotoxic actions of macrophages, and playing a part in neuronal communication in the brain. Cloning of a complementary DNA for brain nitric oxide synthase reveals recognition sites for NADPH, FAD, flavin mononucleotide and calmodulin(More)
Biochemical and electrophysiological studies suggest that odorants induce responses in olfactory sensory neurons via an adenylate cyclase cascade mediated by a G protein. An olfactory-specific guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein alpha subunit has now been characterized and evidence is presented suggesting that this G protein, termed Golf, mediates(More)
The Olf-1/EBF helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factor has been implicated in olfactory gene regulation and in B-cell development. Using homology screening methods, we identified two additional Olf-1/EBF-like cDNAs from a mouse embryonic cDNA library. The Olf-1/EBF-like (O/E) proteins O/E-1, O/E-2, and O/E-3 define a family of transcription factors that(More)
The organization of neuronal systems is often dependent on activity and competition between cells. In olfaction, the X-linked OCNC1 channel subunit is subject to random inactivation and is essential for odorant-evoked activity. Reporter-tagged OCNC1 mutant mice permit the visualization of OCNC1-deficient olfactory neurons and their projections. In(More)
Seven lines were isolated with P element insertions in the cytogenetic vicinity of the learning and memory gene, rutabaga, from an enhancer detector screen designed to mark genes preferentially expressed in mushroom bodies. Six of these lines performed poorly in learning and memory tests, and several failed to complement an existing rutabaga allele.(More)