Randall P. Flick

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OBJECTIVE To investigate surgical, anesthetic, and device-related complications as well as auditory and speech-language development outcomes associated with cochlear implantation (CI) in children 12 months of age and younger. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective chart review. SETTING Tertiary academic referral center. PATIENTS All children with(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW This review examines the recent data, animal and human, reporting an association between early anesthetic exposure, neuronal cell death, and adverse neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS Numerous studies have demonstrated that essentially all commonly used anesthetics, when used alone or in combination, enhance(More)
Laboratory studies have shown that general anesthetics may cause accelerated apoptosis and other adverse morphologic changes in neurons of the developing brain. The mechanism may be related to the neuronal quiescence or inactivity associated with anesthetic exposure. Few data exist on how brief anesthetic exposure may affect neurodevelopment in the newborn.(More)
Exposure to general anesthesia at an early age has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in both animal and human studies, but some of these studies employed anesthetic agents that are no longer in clinical use. In this manuscript, we describe the methods used to construct a new population-based study cohort to study the association(More)
During the Fifth Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment Symposium, experts and stakeholders met to present and discuss recent advances made in the study of neurodevelopmental outcomes after exposure to anesthetic drugs in infants and children. This article summarizes the update of 5 ongoing clinical studies: General Anesthesia compared to Spinal(More)
BACKGROUND Head injuries are the leading cause of death among cyclists, 85 % of which can be prevented by wearing a bicycle helmet. This study aims to estimate the incidence of pediatric bicycle-related injuries in Olmsted County and assess differences in injuries between those wearing helmets vs. not. METHODS Olmsted County, Minnesota residents 5 to 18(More)
We thank Flick and colleagues for their thoughts and their comments on our article. Although we agree that the published study has limitations, we think that many of the limitations might be overstated. Flick et al. assert that the conclusion that 'there is no evidence for a causal relationship between anesthesia administration and later learning-related(More)