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BACKGROUND Anesthetic drugs administered to immature animals may cause neurohistopathologic changes and alterations in behavior. The authors studied association between anesthetic exposure before age 4 yr and the development of reading, written language, and math learning disabilities (LD). METHODS This was a population-based, retrospective birth cohort(More)
BACKGROUND Annually, millions of children are exposed to anesthetic agents that cause apoptotic neurodegeneration in immature animals. To explore the possible significance of these findings in children, we investigated the association between exposure to anesthesia and subsequent (1) learning disabilities (LDs), (2) receipt of an individualized education(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate surgical, anesthetic, and device-related complications as well as auditory and speech-language development outcomes associated with cochlear implantation (CI) in children 12 months of age and younger. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective chart review. SETTING Tertiary academic referral center. PATIENTS All children with(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and outcome of perioperative cardiac arrest (CA) in children younger than 18 yr undergoing anesthesia for noncardiac and cardiac procedures at a tertiary care center. METHODS After institutional review board approval (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota), all patients younger than 18 yr(More)
We report the numerous management challenges surrounding the care of a child in whom bilateral thalamotomies were used to treat end-stage Hallervorden-Spatz Disease (HSD). The management of this patient was greatly facilitated by the use of modern anesthetic agents and a multidisciplinary team to care for the patient. The outcome was an improved life(More)
Editor's Note: This is the third in a three-part series of Editorial Views regarding design of clinical trials to address the effect of anesthesia on the developing brain. Animal studies have suggested that anesthetic exposure could affect neurocognitive development, and there is an urgent need for clinical trials to determine whether this effect occurs in(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW This review examines the recent data, animal and human, reporting an association between early anesthetic exposure, neuronal cell death, and adverse neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS Numerous studies have demonstrated that essentially all commonly used anesthetics, when used alone or in combination, enhance(More)
Laboratory studies have shown that general anesthetics may cause accelerated apoptosis and other adverse morphologic changes in neurons of the developing brain. The mechanism may be related to the neuronal quiescence or inactivity associated with anesthetic exposure. Few data exist on how brief anesthetic exposure may affect neurodevelopment in the newborn.(More)
Exposure to general anesthesia at an early age has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in both animal and human studies, but some of these studies employed anesthetic agents that are no longer in clinical use. In this manuscript, we describe the methods used to construct a new population-based study cohort to study the association(More)