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We have developed an automated, digital imaging system, controlled by two virtual instruments, to measure hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of cultured endothelial monolayers. Live digital images of multiple independent experiments were captured by custom-designed video processing software running in National Instruments LabVIEW 6.1. Fluid displacement data are(More)
The objective of this study was to test whether a glycosaminoglycan component of the surface glycocalyx layer is a fluid shear stress sensor on endothelial cells (ECs). Because enhanced nitric oxide (NO) production in response to fluid shear stress is a characteristic and physiologically important response of ECs, we evaluated NOx (NO2- and NO3-) production(More)
ATP-induced increases of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) were measured as a function of flow rate in single cell recordings within a confluent endothelial cell monolayer. Although flow and its associated shear stress did not per se significantly alter basal [Ca2+]i, ATP-induced [Ca2+]i was exquisitely sensitive to flow. Step increases of flow(More)
An in vitro model of the endothelial transport barrier was developed using bovine aortic endothelial cell monolayers cultured on a porous polycarbonate substrate. Hydraulic conductivity (Lp) was measured by a bubble tracking technique at varying pressure differentials and albumin concentrations. The effective albumin permeability (Pc) was determined by(More)
The surface of endothelial cells is decorated with a wide variety of membrane-bound macromolecules that constitute the glycocalyx. These include glycoproteins bearing acidic oligosaccharides with terminal sialic acids (SA), and proteoglycans with their associated glycosaminoglycan that include: heparan sulfate (HS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), and hyaluronic(More)
We investigated the nonlinear dynamics of the pressure vs. hydraulic conductivity (L(p)) relationship in lung microvascular endothelial cells and demonstrate that heparan sulfates, an important component of the endothelial glycocalyx, participate in pressure-sensitive mechanotransduction that results in barrier dysfunction. The pressure vs. L(p)(More)
Altered permeability of vascular endothelium to macromolecules may play a role in vascular disease as well as vascular homeostasis. Because the shear stress of flowing blood on the vascular wall is known to influence many endothelial cell properties, an in vitro system to measure transendothelial permeability (Pe) to fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated(More)
The mechanical properties of endothelial glycocalyx were studied using atomic force microscopy with a silica bead (diameter ∼18 μm) serving as an indenter. Even at indentations of several hundred nanometers, the bead exerted very low compressive pressures on the bovine lung microvascular endothelial cell (BLMVEC) glycocalyx and allowed for an averaging of(More)
The endothelial glycocalyx is believed to play a major role in microvascular permeability. We tested the hypothesis that specific components of the glycocalyx, via cytoskeletal-mediated signaling, actively participate in barrier regulation. With the use of polymers of arginine and lysine as a model of neutrophil-derived inflammatory cationic proteins, we(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent enhancer of microvascular permeability in vivo. To date, its effects on hydraulic conductivity (L(p)) and diffusive albumin permeability (P(e)) of endothelial monolayers have not been thoroughly assessed in vitro. We hypothesized that VEGF affects endothelial transport properties differently depending on(More)