Randall Kramer

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An empirical Bayes pooling method is used to combine and compare estimates of the value of a statistical life (VSL). The data come from 40 selected studies published between 1974 and 2002, containing 197 VSL estimates. The estimated composite distribution of empirical Bayes adjusted VSL has a mean of $5.4 million and a standard deviation of $2.4 million.(More)
Valuing ecosystem services fromwetlands restoration in theMississippi Alluvial Valley W. Aaron Jenkins ⁎, Brian C. Murray , Randall A. Kramer , Stephen P. Faulkner c a Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke University, Box 90335, Durham, NC 27708-0328, USA b Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Box 90328, Durham, NC(More)
Contingent valuation is used to value tropical forest resources for a rural population in Africa. Welfare losses from land-use restrictions associated with a newly established national park in Madagascar are estimated with a willingness-to-accept format. Because of a limited local cash economy, the contingent valuation question is denominated in baskets of(More)
The coastal ecosystems in Southeast Asia are under increased pressure from local and global change. This paper examines human migration and the use of marine resources in coastal villages in the Minahasa district of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Primary data were collected through interviews with village leaders, focus groups, and a sample survey of 600(More)
The use of microbial larvicides, a form of larval source management, is a less commonly used malaria control intervention that nonetheless has significant potential as a component of an integrated vector management strategy. We evaluated community acceptability of larviciding in a rural district in east-central Tanzania using data from 962 household(More)
Recent literature on migration and the environment has identified key mediating variables such as how migrants extract resources from the environment for their livelihoods, the rate and efficiency of extraction, and the social and economic context within which their extraction occurs. This paper investigates these variables in a new ecological setting using(More)
To understand the current status of the malaria control programme at the county level in accordance with the criteria of the World Health Organisation, the gaps and feasibility of malaria elimination at the county and national levels were analysed based on three kinds of indicators: transmission capacity, capacity of the professional team, and the intensity(More)
The evolutionary dynamics of insecticide resistance in harmful arthropods has economic implications, not only for the control of agricultural pests (as has been well studied), but also for the control of disease vectors, such as malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes. Previous economic work on insecticide resistance illustrates the policy relevance of(More)
During extravasation and within lymph nodes (LNs), blood lymphocytes interact with laminins (Lms), major components of vascular basement membranes (BMs) and of reticular fibers (RFs), a fibrillar extracellular matrix. However, the identity and role of these laminin isoform(s) are poorly known. By using confocal microscopy examination of human LNs, we show(More)
While policies often target malaria prevention and treatment - proximal causes of malaria and related health outcomes - too little attention has been given to the role of household- and individual-level socio-economic status (SES) as a fundamental cause of disease risk in developing countries. This paper presents a conceptual model outlining ways in which(More)