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Attraction between the atoms of a Bose-Einstein condensate renders it unstable to collapse, although a condensate with a limited number of atoms can be stabilized by confinement in an atom trap. However, beyond this number the condensate collapses. Condensates constrained to one-dimensional motion with attractive interactions are predicted to form stable(More)
We report the attainment of simultaneous quantum degeneracy in a mixed gas of bosons (lithium-7) and fermions (lithium-6). The Fermi gas has been cooled to a temperature of 0.25 times the Fermi temperature by thermal collisions with the evaporatively cooled bosons. At this temperature, the spatial size of the gas is strongly affected by the Fermi pressure(More)
We report the observation of pairing in a gas of atomic fermions with unequal numbers of two components. Beyond a critical polarization, the gas separates into a phase that is consistent with a superfluid paired core surrounded by a shell of normal unpaired fermions. The critical polarization diminishes with decreasing attractive interaction. For near-zero(More)
Quantum theory predicts that Bose-Einstein condensation of a spatially homogeneous gas with attractive interactions is precluded by a conventional phase transition into either a liquid or solid. When confined to a trap, however, such a condensate can form, provided that its occupation number does not exceed a limiting value. The stability limit is(More)
Under certain circumstances, three or more interacting particles may form bound states. Although the general few-body problem is not analytically solvable, the so-called Efimov trimers appear for a system of three particles with resonant two-body interactions. The binding energies of these trimers are predicted to be universally connected to each other,(More)
Superconductivity and magnetism generally do not coexist. Changing the relative number of up and down spin electrons disrupts the basic mechanism of superconductivity, where atoms of opposite momentum and spin form Cooper pairs. Nearly forty years ago Fulde and Ferrell and Larkin and Ovchinnikov (FFLO) proposed an exotic pairing mechanism in which magnetism(More)
Ultracold atoms in optical lattices have great potential to contribute to a better understanding of some of the most important issues in many-body physics, such as high-temperature superconductivity. The Hubbard model--a simplified representation of fermions moving on a periodic lattice--is thought to describe the essential details of copper oxide(More)
Cold atomic gases have proven capable of emulating a number of fundamental condensed matter phenomena including Bose-Einstein condensation, the Mott transition, Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov pairing, and the quantum Hall effect. Cooling to a low enough temperature to explore magnetism and exotic superconductivity in lattices of fermionic atoms remains a(More)
We show that Partridge et al. (Reports, 27 January 2006, p. 503) used inconclusive and incorrect criteria for superfluidity and phase separation. Simulations of their experiment suggest that anharmoncities of the trapping potential have caused the features which were interpreted as a signature of a quantum phase transition. The authors of (1) report(More)
We use ultracold spin–1/2 atomic fermions (6 Li) to realize the Hubbard model on a three-dimensional (3D) optical lattice. At relatively high temperatures and at densities near half-filling, we show that the gas forms a Mott insulator with unordered spins. To observe antiferromagnetic order that is predicted to occur at lower temperatures, we developed the(More)