Randall E. Burton

Learn More
ClpXP is a protein machine composed of the ClpX ATPase, a member of the Clp/Hsp100 family of remodeling enzymes, and the ClpP peptidase. Here, ClpX and ClpXP are shown to catalyze denaturation of GFP modified with an ssrA degradation tag. ClpX translocates this denatured protein into the proteolytic chamber of ClpP and, when proteolysis is blocked, also(More)
ATP hydrolysis by AAA+ ClpX hexamers powers protein unfolding and translocation during ClpXP degradation. Although ClpX is a homohexamer, positive and negative allosteric interactions partition six potential nucleotide binding sites into three classes with asymmetric properties. Some sites release ATP rapidly, others release ATP slowly, and at least two(More)
Machines of protein destruction-including energy-dependent proteases and disassembly chaperones of the AAA(+) ATPase family-function in all kingdoms of life to sculpt the cellular proteome, ensuring that unnecessary and dangerous proteins are eliminated and biological responses to environmental change are rapidly and properly regulated. Exciting progress(More)
ClpXP is an ATP-dependent protease that denatures native proteins and translocates the denatured polypeptide into an interior peptidase chamber for degradation. To address the mechanism of these processes, Arc repressor variants with dramatically different stabilities and unfolding half-lives varying from months to seconds were targeted to ClpXP by addition(More)
A moderately stable protein with typical folding kinetics unfolds and refolds many times during its cellular lifetime. In monomeric λ, repressor this process is extremely rapid, with an average folded state lifetime of only 30 milliseconds. A thermostable variant of this protein (G46A/G48A) unfolds with the wild-type rate, but it folds in approximately 20(More)
Arc repressor bearing the N11L substitution (Arc-N11L) is an evolutionary intermediate between the wild type protein, in which the region surrounding position 11 forms a β-sheet, and a double mutant 'switch Arc', in which this region is helical. Here, Arc-N11L is shown to be able to adopt either the wild type or mutant conformations. Exchange between these(More)
ATP-dependent protein degradation is controlled principally by substrate recognition. The AAA+ HslU ATPase is thought to bind protein substrates, denature them, and translocate the unfolded polypeptide into the HslV peptidase. The lack of well-behaved high-affinity substrates for HslUV (ClpYQ) has hampered understanding of the rules and mechanism of(More)
Many applications in pharmaceutical development, clinical diagnostics, and biological research demand rapid detection of multiple analytes (multiplexed detection) in a minimal volume. This need has led to the development of several novel array-based sensors. The most successful of these so far have been suspension arrays based on polystyrene beads. However,(More)
ClpX and related AAA+ ATPases of the Clp/Hsp100 family are able to denature native proteins. Here, we explore the role of protein stability in ClpX denaturation and subsequent ClpP degradation of model substrates bearing ssrA degradation tags at different positions. ClpXP degraded T. thermophilus RNase-H* with a C-terminal ssrA tag very efficiently, despite(More)
ClpX requires ATP to unfold protein substrates and translocate them into the proteolytic chamber of ClpP for degradation. The steady-state parameters for hydrolysis of ATP and ATPgammaS by ClpX were measured with different protein partners and the kinetics of degradation of ssrA-tagged substrates were determined with both nucleotides. ClpX hydrolyzed(More)