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Measuring the causal effects of online advertising (adfx) on user behavior is important to the health of the WWW publishing industry. In this paper, using three controlled experiments, we show that observational data frequently lead to incorrect estimates of adfx. The reason, which we label "activity bias," comes from the surprising amount of time-based(More)
"North" ads, or sponsored listings appearing just above the organic search results, generate the majority of clicks and revenues for search engines. In this paper, we ask whether the competing north ads exert externalities on each other. In particular, does increasing the number of rival north ads decrease the number of clicks I receive on my own north ad?(More)
Online consumer data presents new opportunities for measuring the effects of advertising. We combine search query data with the television commercial schedule for the 2011 Super Bowl to measure the causal impact of TV advertising on consumer search behavior. Examining 46 Super Bowl commercials, we generally find large spikes in search behavior related to(More)
We study the impact of display advertising on user search behavior using a field experiment. In such an experiment, the treatment group users are exposed to some display advertising campaign, while the control group users are not. During the campaign and the post-campaign period we monitor the user search queries and we label them as relevant or irrelevant(More)
Some online display advertisements are annoying. Although publishers know the payment they receive to run annoying ads, little is known about the cost that such ads incur (e.g., causing website abandonment). Across three empirical studies, the authors address two primary questions: (1) What is the economic cost of annoying ads to publishers? and (2) What is(More)
A workflow is presented that integrates gene expression data, proteomic data, and literature-based manual curation to construct multicellular, tissue-specific models of human brain energy metabolism that recapitulate metabolic interactions between astrocytes and various neuron types. Three analyses are applied for gene identification, analysis of omics(More)
Monte Carlo Sampling was used to generate a set of uniform, feasible flux distributions (points). The method is based on the Artificially Centered Hit and Run (ACHR) algorithm with slight modifications 1. Initially a set of non-uniform pseudo-random points, called warm-up points, is generated. In a series of iterations, each point is randomly moved, always(More)
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