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The technology for functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) as a means of providing upper limb function to people with tetraplegia has been under development by three clinical research groups for almost two decades. This paper presents the current status of the clinical trials of three FNS systems: a noninvasive system built into a cosmetic forearm(More)
An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with a supervisory control system (SCS) was used to predict the occurrence of gait events using the electromyographic (EMG) activity of lower extremity muscles in the child with cerebral palsy (CP). This is anticipated to form the basis of a control algorithm for the application of electrical stimulation (ES)(More)
The objective of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of a model that employs electromyographic (EMG) signals to predict the occurrence of gait events in the child with cerebral palsy (CP). This model could be the basis of a future functional electrical stimulation (FES) control system to assist gait. Two children were implanted with bifilar(More)
Force-sensing resistors (FSRs) were used to detect the transitions between five main phases of gait for the control of electrical stimulation (ES) while walking with seven children with spastic diplegia, cerebral palsy. The FSR positions within each child's insoles were customized based on plantar pressure profiles determined using a pressure-sensitive(More)
In this study, a functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) hand system designed by Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) was implemented in 5 adolescents with C5 tetraplegia and hand function with FNS was evaluated and compared to tenodesis abilities using a grasp and release test designed specifically for this purpose. The test involved the unilateral(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE DTI in the brain has been well established, but its application in the spinal cord, especially in pediatrics, poses several challenges. The small cord size has inherent low SNR of the diffusion signal intensity, respiratory and cardiac movements induce artifacts, and EPI sequences used for obtaining diffusion indices cause(More)
BACKGROUND Previous research has suggested a correlation between pulmonary impairment and thoracic spinal deformity. The curve magnitude, number of involved vertebrae, curve location, and decrease in thoracic kyphosis independently contribute to pulmonary impairment, but the strength of these associations has been variable. The objectives of this study were(More)
PURPOSE Various series have reported successful management of scoliosis after surgical treatment of the associated Chiari malformation, syrinx, or bracing. Multiple factors have been associated with curve progression, but interpretation of outcomes is confounded by the wide range of reported results and size of individual series. We attempted to evaluate(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to report the results of rater agreement for the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISCSCI) motor and sensory scores before and after training in the testing technique. METHODS Six raters performed sequential motor and sensory examinations on 5 adolescents with(More)