Randal J Kaufman

Learn More
In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), secretory and transmembrane proteins fold into their native conformation and undergo posttranslational modifications important for their activity and structure. When protein folding in the ER is inhibited, signal transduction pathways, which increase the biosynthetic capacity and decrease the biosynthetic burden of the ER(More)
All eukaryotic cells have an extensive membranous labyrinth network of branching tubules and flattened sacs called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Approximately one-third of all cellular proteins are translocated into the lumen of the ER where post-translational modification, folding, and oligomerization occurs. The ER provides a unique oxidizing(More)
Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic aggregates of stalled translational preinitiation complexes that accumulate during stress. GW bodies/processing bodies (PBs) are distinct cytoplasmic sites of mRNA degradation. In this study, we show that SGs and PBs are spatially, compositionally, and functionally linked. SGs and PBs are induced by stress, but SG(More)
The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induces a coordinated adaptive program called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR alleviates stress by upregulating protein folding and degradation pathways in the ER and inhibiting protein synthesis. With a basic conceptual framework for the UPR, including the(More)
Conformational diseases are caused by mutations altering the folding pathway or final conformation of a protein. Many conformational diseases are caused by mutations in secretory proteins and reach from metabolic diseases, e.g. diabetes, to developmental and neurological diseases, e.g. Alzheimer's disease. Expression of mutant proteins disrupts protein(More)
The accumulation of unfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) attenuates protein synthesis initiation through phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) at Ser51. Subsequently, transcription of genes encoding adaptive functions including the glucose-regulated proteins is induced. We show that(More)
Eukaryotes respond to the presence of unfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by up-regulating the transcription of genes encoding ER protein chaperones, such as BiP. We have isolated a novel human cDNA encoding a homolog to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ire1p, a proximal sensor for this signal transduction pathway in yeast. The gene product hIre1p is(More)
Most protein phosphatases have little intrinsic substrate specificity, making selective pharmacological inhibition of specific dephosphorylation reactions a challenging problem. In a screen for small molecules that protect cells from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, we identified salubrinal, a selective inhibitor of cellular complexes that dephosphorylate(More)