Learn More
OBJECTIVE Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been postulated to be related to dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex. In the oculomotor delayed response task, a subject is cued as to where he or she should look (shift visual gaze to) but must delay a short period and then shift gaze to the location where the cue previously existed but no(More)
BACKGROUND The alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene (CHRNA7) has been implicated as a candidate gene for schizophrenia, and for an auditory sensory processing deficit found in the disease, by both genetic linkage at 15q14 and biochemical data. The expression of CHRNA7 is reduced in several brain regions in schizophrenic subjects(More)
This cross-sectional study used saccadic eye movements, as measured by infrared occulography, to assess several aspects of visuospatial attention in normal children ages 8-15 years. Saccadic latency (a global measure of the ability to shift visuospatial attention), the ability to suppress extraneous saccades during fixation, and the ability to inhibit(More)
OBJECTIVE There is increasing interest in the possible relationship between the early diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia during adolescence and improved long-term outcome. This study reviews the premorbid and prodromal diagnostic and treatment histories for childhood-onset schizophrenia, to assess whether early identification and treatment is possible(More)
The human α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene (CHRNA7) is ubiquitously expressed in both the central nervous system and in the periphery. CHRNA7 is genetically linked to multiple disorders with cognitive deficits, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ADHD, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and Rett syndrome. The regulation of CHRNA7 is(More)
Patients with mental illness have a higher incidence of smoking than the general population and are the major consumers of tobacco products. This population includes subjects with schizophrenia, manic depression, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), attention-deficit disorder (ADD), and several other less common diseases. Smoking cessation(More)
This study examined whether schizophrenics' cigarette smoking normalized smooth pursuit eye movement abnormalities. Fifteen schizophrenic and 15 nonschizophrenic subjects abstained from their usual cigarette smoking for an average of 10 h. Their baseline performance during a constant velocity smooth pursuit task was then assessed. The subjects smoked as(More)
Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal/child outcomes. One potential biomarker of the maternal stress response is cortisol, a product of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study evaluated cortisol levels in hair throughout pregnancy as a marker of total cortisol release. Cortisol levels in hair have been(More)
Schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are both associated with deficits in inhibition and working memory, although in ADHD the working memory deficit is hypothesized to be secondary to the inhibitory deficit. This similarity in cognitive processes has been paralleled by similarities across the two groups in the performance of(More)
Studies of neurobiological disorders in the brain, including schizophrenia, rely on the use of postmortem brain tissues, in which an understanding of the effects of various pre- and postmortem variables on gene expression is critical. In several different brain regions, pH has been shown to have a large effect on postmortem brain gene expression patterns.(More)