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All existing transistors are based on the use of semiconductor junctions formed by introducing dopant atoms into the semiconductor material. As the distance between junctions in modern devices drops below 10 nm, extraordinarily high doping concentration gradients become necessary. Because of the laws of diffusion and the statistical nature of the(More)
Mutations in the gene encoding the amyloid protein precursor (APP) cause autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. Cleavage of APP by unidentified proteases, referred to as beta- and gamma-secretases, generates the amyloid beta-peptide, the main component of the amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer's disease patients. The disease-causing mutations flank the(More)
Deep submicron CMOS technologies offer the high speed and low power dissipation required in multigigahertz communication systems such as optical data links and wireless products. This paper introduces the design of two communication circuits, namely a 1/2 frequency divider and a phase-locked loop, fabricated in a partially scaled 0.1 m CMOS technology.(More)
Conduction mechanisms in junctionless nanowire transistors (gated resistors) are compared to inversion-mode and accumulation-mode MOS devices. The junctionless device uses bulk conduction instead of surface channel. The current drive is controlled by doping concentration and not by gate capacitance. The variation of threshold voltage with physical(More)
The rate-limiting step of eukaryotic protein synthesis is the binding of mRNA to the 40 S ribosomal subunit, a step which is catalyzed by initiation factors of the eIF-4 (eukaryotic initiation factor 4) group: eIF-4A, eIF-4B, eIF-4E, and eIF-4 gamma. Infection of cells with picornaviruses of the rhino- and enterovirus groups causes a shut-off in translation(More)
BACE1 and BACE2 define a new subfamily of membrane-anchored aspartyl proteases. Both endoproteases share similar structural organization including a prodomain, a catalytic domain formed via DTG and DSG active site motifs, a single transmembrane domain, and a short C-terminal tail. BACE1 has been identified as the Alzheimer's beta-secretase, whereas BACE2(More)
BACKGROUND The interaction of glycoprotein (GP) Ibalpha with von Willebrand factor (VWF) initiates platelet adhesion, and simultaneously triggers intracellular signaling cascades leading to platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. Some of the signaling events are similar to those occurring during apoptosis, however, it is still unclear whether platelet(More)
Release of Abeta peptides from beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) requires sequential cleavage by two endopeptidases, beta- and gamma-secretases. beta-Secretase was recently identified as a novel membrane-bound aspartyl protease, named BACE1, Asp2, or memapsin 2. Employing confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation, we have found that BACE1 is(More)
This paper investigates the temperature dependence of the main electrical parameters of junctionless (JL) silicon nanowire transistors. Direct comparison is made to silicon nanowire (trigate) MOSFETs. Variation of parameters such as threshold voltage and on-off current characteristics is analyzed. The JL silicon nanowire FET has a lager variation of(More)