Ramun Schmid

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Several studies in the past have demonstrated the existence of an Otolith-Ocular Reflex (OOR) in man, although much less sensitive than canal ocular reflex. The present paper 1 confirms these previous results. Nystagmic eye movements (L-nystagmus) appear in the seated subject during horizontal acceleration along the interaural axis in the dark for an(More)
Saccadic eye movements evoked by the presentation of visual and auditory targets were examined and compared. Differences were found either in the pattern of the saccadic response and in the characteristics of single saccades of the same amplitude. The longer latency and the higher percentage of multiple saccade responses in the auditory case were attributed(More)
1.Unilateral habituation of the vestibuloocular reflex was produced in adult cats stimulated by repeated unidirectional velocity steps (vestibular training) or by a continuously moving visual surround (optokinetic training). — 2. Unidirectional vestibular training produced a strong asymmetry of vestibuloocular responses (VOR). Responses to velocity steps(More)
In order to examine otolithic contribution to eye movements ten subjects were asked to track either a moving acoustic target or a stationary target during subect linear motion on a cart. The relative displacement between the subject and the target was the same in the two situations. Recordings of eye movements during subject lateral acceleration in the dark(More)
The predominance of anti-compensatory eye movements in vestibular nystagmus recorded during sinusoidal and post-rotational tests is interpreted in terms of a mathematical model of the vestibulo-ocular system. Namely, a direct pathway between the vestibular nuclei and the saccadic mechanism is assumed. In the range of frequencies of natural head movements(More)
Vestibular habituation was investigated in 6 adult cats submitted to repetitive alternating velocity steps (160°/sec). The progressive change of the nystagmic response was examined by constructing the diagrams of the slow cumulative eye position and slow phase eye velocity; then it was quantified by evaluating some characteristic parameters of these(More)
Horizontal smooth pursuit eye movements were recorded in normal subjects in response to different patterns of target motion that was either periodic or not. Periodic patterns were triangular and sinusoidal waves. Non-periodic patterns were ramps with either constant or sinusoidally varying velocity. In both cases, several different amplitudes and peak(More)
1. A new description of vestibulo-ocular responses to angular velocity steps has been used to quantify vestibular compensation in right hemilabyrinthectomized cats. The amplitudes (VM and CM) and the times of occurrence (tM and to) from stimulus onset of the peaks of slow phase eye velocity and slow cumulative eye position were computed for velocity steps(More)
After a brief description of the main anatomical structures subserving the oculomotor responses during combined vestibular and optokinetic stimulations, a mathematical model is presented. With respect to a previous model by Schmid et al. (1980), a more accurate definition of the roles of the neural mechanisms involved in oculomotor control in different(More)
In order to clarify the problem of which stimulus parameters affect vestibular habituation, a group of cats was submitted to repeated velocity steps involving changes in either the step amplitude or the interval between two consecutive steps. In the first two experiments, the protocol was the same as in a previous study which used steps of 160°/s separated(More)