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Protein kinases of the microtubule affinity-regulating kinase (MARK) family were originally discovered because of their ability to phosphorylate tau protein and related microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), and their role in the establishment of cell polarity in different contexts. Recent papers have indicated that microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4(More)
PURPOSE Cortical dysplasia (CD) represents a wide range of histopathological abnormalities of the cortical mantle that are frequently associated with drug-resistant epilepsy. Recently, carmustine (1-3-bis-chloroethyl-nitrosurea [BCNU]), given to pregnant rats on embryonic day (E) 15, has been used to develop an experimental model mimicking human CD. The aim(More)
OBJECTIVE To define distinctive features of nodular heterotopia in specimens derived from drug-resistant patients with epilepsy by evaluating mRNA expression of three different layer-specific markers: Rorbeta, Er81, and Nurr1. METHODS We analyzed the expression profile of these genes, recognized as markers mainly expressed in layer IV for Rorbeta, in(More)
The experimental model of cortical dysplasia (CD) obtained by administering carmustine (1-3-bis-chloroethyl-nitrosurea [BCNU]) in pregnant rat uterus mimics the histopathological abnormalities observed in human CD patients: altered cortical layering, and presence of heterotopia and dysmorphic/heterotopic neurons. To investigate further the cortical layering(More)
Derangements of cortical development can cause a wide spectrum of malformations, generally termed 'cortical dysplasia' (CD), which are frequently associated with drug-resistant epilepsy and other neurological and mental disorders. 1,3-Bis-chloroethyl-nitrosurea (BCNU)-treated rats represent a model of CD due to the presence of histological alterations(More)
Kir4.1 is the principal K(+) channel expressed in glial cells. It has been shown that it plays a fundamental role in K(+)-spatial buffering, an astrocyte-specific process where excess extracellular concentration of K(+) ions, generated by synaptic activity, is spatially redistributed to distant sites via astrocytic syncytia. Experimental and clinical(More)
PURPOSE Neuropathologic investigations frequently reveal the presence of architectural cortical dysplasia in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), sometimes as an isolated finding but more commonly associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and white matter abnormalities. The histologic pattern and the developmental origin of these alterations are not(More)
Cortical dysplasia (CD) comprises a wide range of cerebral cortex alterations ranging from severe brain malformations to local disruption of the cortical structure. Most hypotheses focused on the role of embryonic/perinatal development insults as the main cause for the majority of CD. Rats with prenatal exposure to BCNU (1-3-bis-chloroethyl-nitrosurea)(More)
BACKGROUND MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 (MARK4) is a serine-threonine kinase expressed in two spliced isoforms, MARK4L and MARK4S, of which MARK4L is a candidate for a role in neoplastic transformation. METHODS We performed mutation analysis to identify sequence alterations possibly affecting MARK4 expression. We then investigated the(More)
We investigated the expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the developing rat thalamus by immunohistochemistry, using light, confocal and electron microscopy. We also examined the relationship between the expression of the homeoprotein Otx2, a transcription factor implicated in brain regionalization, and the radial and non-radial migration of early(More)