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An unexpected finding emerging from large-scale genome analyses is that prokaryotes express ion channels belonging to molecular families long studied in neurons. Bacteria and archaea are now known to carry genes for potassium channels of the voltage-gated, inward rectifier and calcium-activated classes, ClC-type chloride channels, an ionotropic glutamate(More)
We characterized the role of catabolite control protein A (ccpA) in the physiology and virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. S. pneumoniae has a large percentage of its genome devoted to sugar uptake and metabolism, and therefore, regulation of these processes is likely to be crucial for fitness in the nasopharynx and may play a role during invasive(More)
We characterized two sucrose-metabolizing systems -sus and scr- and describe their roles in the physiology and virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in murine models of carriage and pneumonia. The sus and scr systems are regulated by LacI family repressors SusR and ScrR respectively. SusR regulates an adjacent ABC transporter (susT1/susT2/susX) and(More)
The L3 loop is an important feature of the OmpF porin structure, contributing to both channel size and electrostatic properties. Colicins A and N, spermine, and antibiotics that use OmpF to penetrate the cell, were used to investigate the structure-function relationships of L3. Spermine was found to protect efficiently cells expressing wild-type OmpF from(More)
Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND) family pumps AcrB and MexB are the major efflux routes in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. Fluorescent environment-sensitive dyes provide a means to study efflux pump function in live bacterial cells in real-time. Recently, we demonstrated the utility of this approach using the dye Nile Red to(More)
A direct assay of efflux by Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC and related multidrug pumps would have great value in discovery of new Gram-negative antibiotics. The current understanding of how efflux is affected by the chemical structure and physical properties of molecules is extremely limited, derived from antibacterial data for compounds that inhibit growth of(More)
The global emergence of antibiotic resistance, especially in Gram-negative bacteria, is an urgent threat to public health. Discovery of novel classes of antibiotics with activity against these pathogens has been impeded by a fundamental lack of understanding of the molecular drivers underlying small molecule uptake. Although it is well-known that outer(More)
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