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Chromosomal rearrangements are the major cause of inherited human disease and fetal loss. Translocations and loss of heterozygosity are important genetic changes causally involved in neoplasia. Chromosomal variants, such as deficiencies, are commonly exploited in genetic screens in organisms such as Drosophila because a small portion of the genome is(More)
The availability of both the mouse and human genome sequences allows for the systematic discovery of human gene function through the use of the mouse as a model system. To accelerate the genetic determination of gene function, we have developed a sequence-tagged gene-trap library of >270,000 mouse embryonic stem cell clones representing mutations in(More)
Two Hoxb-4 (Hox-2.6) mutations were introduced into the mouse germline. The overt phenotype caused by one of the mutations was assayed on two different genetic backgrounds, an inbred 129SvEv and a hybrid 129SvEv-C57BL/6J. The allele hoxb-4' is a disruption of the first exon and causes two obvious skeletal changes: a partial homeotic transformation of the(More)
A high-throughput, retrovirus-mediated mutagenesis method based on gene trapping in embryonic stem cells was used to identify a novel mouse gene. The human ortholog encodes a transmembrane protein containing five extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains that is structurally related to human NEPHRIN, a protein associated with congenital nephrotic syndrome.(More)
The Hox gene products are transcription factors involved in specifying regional identity along the anteroposterior body axis. In the mouse, several single mutants for Hox genes show variably penetrant, partial homeotic transformations of vertebrae at their anterior limits of expression, suggesting that compound Hox mutants might show more complete(More)
In 2007, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) made the ambitious promise to generate mutations in virtually every protein-coding gene of the mouse genome in a concerted worldwide action. Now, 5 years later, the IKMC members have developed high-throughput gene trapping and, in particular, gene-targeting pipelines and generated more than 17,400(More)
Gene targeting in embryonic stem (ES) cells is a powerful tool for generating mice with null alleles. Current methods of gene inactivation in ES cells introduce a neomycin gene (neo) cassette both as a mutagen and a selection marker for transfected cells. Although null alleles are valuable, changes at the nucleotide level of a gene are very important for(More)
Platelets are the second most abundant cell type in blood and are essential for maintaining haemostasis. Their count and volume are tightly controlled within narrow physiological ranges, but there is only limited understanding of the molecular processes controlling both traits. Here we carried out a high-powered meta-analysis of genome-wide association(More)
Mutations in whole organisms are powerful ways of interrogating gene function in a realistic context. We describe a program, the Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project, that provides a step toward the aim of knocking out all genes and screening each line for a broad range of traits. We found that hitherto unpublished genes were as likely to reveal(More)
Many experimental designs require the analysis of genomic DNA from a large number of samples. Although the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used, the Southern blot is preferred for many assays because of its inherent reliability. The rapid acceptance of PCR, despite a significant rate of false positive/negative results, is partly due to the(More)