Ramiro L. Gutierrez

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To the Editor: A 56-year-old man came to the emergency department (ED) of Malcolm Grow Medical Center at Andrews Air Force Base in suburban Maryland, USA, just outside Washington, DC. He had a history of several days of cough, fever, and malaise; was a nonsmoker; was overweight (body mass index 28 kg/m 2); and did not have chronic pulmonary disease.(More)
Epidemiologic research is fundamental and complementary to our understanding of disease and development of primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions. To put the current evidence into context and identify gaps and research priorities in the areas of disease attribution, burden of disease, clinical characterization, and management of postinfectious(More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile associated disease (CDAD) has risen in incidence and the experience in the US military has not been described. METHODS We evaluated the U.S. military's database and identified CDAD cases and demographic characteristics among affected military personnel from 1998 to 2010. RESULTS 2,423 cases were identified. CDAD(More)
Several candidate vaccines against Shigella spp. are in development, but the lack of a clear correlate of protection from challenge with the induction of adequate immune responses among the youngest age groups in the developing world has hampered Shigella vaccine development over the past several decades. Bioconjugation technology, exploited here for an(More)
BACKGROUND Experimental human challenge models have played a major role in enhancing our understanding of infectious diseases. Primary outcomes have typically utilized overly simplistic outcomes that fail to entirely account for complex illness syndromes. We sought to characterize clinical outcomes associated with experimental infection with enterotoxigenic(More)
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