Ramin Khatami

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Slow, rhythmic oscillations (<5 Hz) in the sleep electroencephalogram may be a sign of synaptic plasticity occurring during sleep. The oscillations, referred to as slow-wave activity (SWA), reflect sleep need and sleep intensity. The amount of SWA is homeostatically regulated. It is enhanced after sleep loss and declines during sleep. Animal studies(More)
Prolonged wakefulness increases electroencephalogram (EEG) low-frequency activity (< 10 Hz) in waking and sleep, and reduces spindle frequency activity (approximately 12-16 Hz) in non-rapid-eye-movement (nonREM) sleep. These physiologic markers of enhanced sleep propensity reflect a sleep-wake-dependent process referred to as sleep homeostasis. We(More)
Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is a complex sleep-wake disorder, which was recently found to be associated with a reduction or loss of hypocretin (HCRT, also called orexin). HCRT is a hypothalamic peptide implicated in the regulation of sleep/wake, motor and feeding functions. Cataplexy refers to episodes of sudden and transient loss of muscle tone(More)
Caffeine is the most widely used stimulant in Western countries. Some people voluntarily reduce caffeine consumption because it impairs the quality of their sleep. Studies in mice revealed that the disruption of sleep after caffeine is mediated by blockade of adenosine A2A receptors. Here we show in humans that (1) habitual caffeine consumption is(More)
Large individual differences characterize the changes induced by sleep deprivation on neurobehavioral functions and rhythmic brain activity. To investigate adenosinergic mechanisms in these differences, we studied the effects of prolonged waking and the adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine on sustained vigilant attention and regional electroencephalogram(More)
The aim of the study was to assess sleep-wake habits and disorders and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in an unselected outpatient epilepsy population. Sleep-wake habits and presence of sleep disorders were assessed by means of a clinical interview and a standard questionnaire in 100 consecutive patients with epilepsy and 90 controls. The questionnaire(More)
Advances in EEG signal analysis and its combination with other investigative techniques make appropriate statistical analysis of large EEG datasets a crucial issue. With an increasing number of available channels and samples, as well as more exploratory experimental designs, it has become necessary to develop a statistical process with a high level of(More)
The blink reflex of acoustic startle reflex (ASR) is modulated by emotions and a loss of physiological aversive ASR potentiation is reported in humans following amygdala lesions. Patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC) were found to have normal ASR, but they failed to exhibit startle potentiation during unpleasant stimuli. This absence of aversive ASR(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To examine whether vigilant attention and sleepiness develop differently during prolonged wakefulness in young and older men. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance and subjective sleepiness were determined in 14 sessions at 3 hour intervals in healthy young (n = 12, mean age: 25.2 years, range:(More)
OBJECTIVE Hypothalamic hypocretins (or orexins) regulate energy metabolism and arousal maintenance. Recent animal research suggests that hypocretins may also influence reward-related behaviors. In humans, the loss of hypocretin-containing neurons results in a major sleep-wake disorder called narcolepsy-cataplexy, which is associated with emotional(More)