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Prolonged wakefulness increases electroencephalogram (EEG) low-frequency activity (< 10 Hz) in waking and sleep, and reduces spindle frequency activity (approximately 12-16 Hz) in non-rapid-eye-movement (nonREM) sleep. These physiologic markers of enhanced sleep propensity reflect a sleep-wake-dependent process referred to as sleep homeostasis. We(More)
Slow, rhythmic oscillations (<5 Hz) in the sleep electroencephalogram may be a sign of synaptic plasticity occurring during sleep. The oscillations, referred to as slow-wave activity (SWA), reflect sleep need and sleep intensity. The amount of SWA is homeostatically regulated. It is enhanced after sleep loss and declines during sleep. Animal studies(More)
A few publications documented the coexistence of epilepsy and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The extent, nature, and clinical relevance of this association remain poorly understood. We retrospectively reviewed the database of our sleep center to identify patients with both sleep apnea and epilepsy. Characteristics of epilepsy, sleep history, presence of(More)
Large individual differences characterize the changes induced by sleep deprivation on neurobehavioral functions and rhythmic brain activity. To investigate adenosinergic mechanisms in these differences, we studied the effects of prolonged waking and the adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine on sustained vigilant attention and regional electroencephalogram(More)
Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is a complex sleep-wake disorder, which was recently found to be associated with a reduction or loss of hypocretin (HCRT, also called orexin). HCRT is a hypothalamic peptide implicated in the regulation of sleep/wake, motor and feeding functions. Cataplexy refers to episodes of sudden and transient loss of muscle tone(More)
The aim of the study was to assess sleep-wake habits and disorders and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in an unselected outpatient epilepsy population. Sleep-wake habits and presence of sleep disorders were assessed by means of a clinical interview and a standard questionnaire in 100 consecutive patients with epilepsy and 90 controls. The questionnaire(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To examine whether vigilant attention and sleepiness develop differently during prolonged wakefulness in young and older men. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance and subjective sleepiness were determined in 14 sessions at 3 hour intervals in healthy young (n = 12, mean age: 25.2 years, range:(More)
Advances in EEG signal analysis and its combination with other investigative techniques make appropriate statistical analysis of large EEG datasets a crucial issue. With an increasing number of available channels and samples, as well as more exploratory experimental designs, it has become necessary to develop a statistical process with a high level of(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess frequency and characteristics of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in restless legs syndrome (RLS) and the evolution of EDS under different RLS therapies. METHODS We analyzed data from the "Swiss RLS" study, which was conducted to compare treatment efficacy and safety of the dopamine agonist pramipexole (PPX) versus(More)
Caffeine is the most widely used stimulant in Western countries. Some people voluntarily reduce caffeine consumption because it impairs the quality of their sleep. Studies in mice revealed that the disruption of sleep after caffeine is mediated by blockade of adenosine A2A receptors. Here we show in humans that (1) habitual caffeine consumption is(More)