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The first example of so-called "digital microfluidics" (DMF) implemented on paper by inkjet printing is reported. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is demonstrated as an example of a complex, multistep protocol that would be difficult to achieve with capillary-driven paper microfluidics. Furthermore, it is shown that paper-based DMF(More)
Transparent, biocompatible and biodegradable chitosan (CS) nanocomposite films reinforced with nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) were prepared by solution casting. The effects of NFC content on the mechanical properties in dry and wet conditions were investigated. The incorporation of NFC significantly enhanced the mechanical properties, especially in wet(More)
Activated sludge flocs that are carried to the final effluent can significantly decrease the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection of wastewater. This effect is detected in a typical UV dose-response curve, where at higher UV doses there is a decrease in the inactivation rate (tailing). In this study, the effect of activated sludge process(More)
In this paper, a systematic study on preparation of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-supported nickel catalyst is pursued. Functional groups are introduced on the surface of MWCNTs using nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and partial oxidation in air. Nickel oxide nanoparticles are formed on the surface of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes by(More)
Ultraviolet disinfection is a physical method of disinfecting secondary treated wastewaters. Bioflocs formed during secondary treatment harbor and protect microbes from exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, and significantly decrease the efficiency of disinfection at high UV doses causing the tailing phenomena. However, the exact mechanism of tailing and the(More)
In this paper, the effect of sonication on the UV disinfection kinetics of primary effluents was investigated. Wastewater samples were collected from local municipal treatment plants and were sonicated with a 20-kHz ultrasound reactor at constant power but varying sonication times. Sonicated samples were irradiated using low-pressure UV light to obtain the(More)
An eco-friendly and full-polysaccharide polyelectrolyte complex system was developed to enhance the wet and dry tensile strength of cellulose fibre networks. Cellulose fibres were treated by carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in pulp suspension. Paper sheets made from CMC-treated fibres were further modified via the layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of(More)
This work involves the optimized preparation and characterization of microcapsules which contain benzoyl peroxide (BPO) dispersed in dibutyl phthalate (DBP) with gelatin-gum arabic (Gel-GA)/polyurea-formaldehyde (PUF) shell. The microcapsules were prepared in two steps using complex coacervation and in situ polymerization techniques, respectively, at(More)
In this paper, the role of naturally occurring polyphosphate in enhancing the ultraviolet disinfection of wastewater flocs is examined. It was found that polyphosphate, which accumulates naturally within the wastewater flocs in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal process, is capable of producing hydroxyl radicals under UV irradiation and hence(More)