Ramesh Ramamoorthy

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Antigenic variation is an effective strategy evolved by pathogenic microbes to avoid immune destruction. Variable Ags such as the variable major protein of Borrelia hermsii, the variant surface glycoprotein of African trypanosomes, and the pilin of Neisseria gonorrhoeae include an immunodominant variable domain and one or more invariable domains that are(More)
In an earlier paper we described the transcriptionally regulated differential levels of expression of two lipoproteins of Borrelia burgdorferi, P35 and P7.5, during growth of the spirochetes in culture from logarithmic phase to stationary phase (K. J. Indest, R. Ramamoorthy, M. Solé, R. D. Gilmore, B. J. B. Johnson, and M. T. Philipp, Infect. Immun.(More)
Previously, we had identified non-OspA-OspB surface proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi that are targeted by the antibody-dependent complement-mediated killing mechanism. Here we demonstrate by Western blotting that one of these proteins, P35, is upregulated at the onset of stationary phase in vitro. Northern analysis revealed that the upregulation of P35 is(More)
Lyme neuroborreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, often manifests by causing neurocognitive deficits. As a possible mechanism for Lyme neuroborreliosis, we hypothesized that B. burgdorferi induces the production of inflammatory mediators in the central nervous system with concomitant neuronal and/or glial apoptosis. To test our(More)
An expression library made with Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in the vector lambda ZapII was screened with serum from a monkey infected with the Lyme disease agent. This serum killed B. burgdorferi in vitro by an antibody-dependent, complement-mediated mechanism and contained antibodies to at least seven spirochetal antigens, none of which were the major outer(More)
To fight, flee or hide are the imperatives of long-term survival by an infectious microbe. Active immune suppression, induction of immune tolerance, phase and antigenic variation, intracellular seclusion, and incursion into immune privileged sites are examples of survival strategies of persistent pathogens. Here we critically review the supporting evidence(More)
The bba64 (P35) gene of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, encodes a surface-exposed lipoprotein. The expression of bba64 in vitro is tightly regulated and dependent on several environmental factors. In nature, its expression is induced in the tick vector during feeding and maintained during infection of the vertebrate host. The pattern of(More)
Previously, we had demonstrated the upregulation in the expression of several proteins, including the lipoproteins OspC and P35, of Borrelia burgdorferi in the stationary growth phase. Since the expression of OspC is also known to be affected by culture temperature and pH, we examined the effects of both variables on the expression of the remaining(More)
Spirochetes belong to a widely diverse family of bacteria. Several species in this family can cause a variety of illnesses including syphilis and Lyme disease. Despite the fact that the complete genome sequence of two species, Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum, have been deciphered, much remains to be understood about spirochetal gene regulation.(More)
bmp gene family 36 of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, comprises four paralogs: bmpA, bmpB, bmpC, and bmpD. The bmpA and bmpB genes constitute an operon. All four genes have been found to be transcribed in cultured spirochetes. Expression from the bmpAB operon results in three distinct transcripts of 1.1, 1.6, and 2.4 kb, and the relative(More)