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Lyme neuroborreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, often manifests by causing neurocognitive deficits. As a possible mechanism for Lyme neuroborreliosis, we hypothesized that B. burgdorferi induces the production of inflammatory mediators in the central nervous system with concomitant neuronal and/or glial apoptosis. To test our(More)
Antigenic variation is an effective strategy evolved by pathogenic microbes to avoid immune destruction. Variable Ags such as the variable major protein of Borrelia hermsii, the variant surface glycoprotein of African trypanosomes, and the pilin of Neisseria gonorrhoeae include an immunodominant variable domain and one or more invariable domains that are(More)
Previously, we had demonstrated the upregulation in the expression of several proteins, including the lipoproteins OspC and P35, of Borrelia burgdorferi in the stationary growth phase. Since the expression of OspC is also known to be affected by culture temperature and pH, we examined the effects of both variables on the expression of the remaining(More)
In an earlier paper we described the transcriptionally regulated differential levels of expression of two lipoproteins of Borrelia burgdorferi, P35 and P7.5, during growth of the spirochetes in culture from logarithmic phase to stationary phase (K. J. Indest, R. Ramamoorthy, M. Solé, R. D. Gilmore, B. J. B. Johnson, and M. T. Philipp, Infect. Immun.(More)
Previously, we had identified non-OspA-OspB surface proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi that are targeted by the antibody-dependent complement-mediated killing mechanism. Here we demonstrate by Western blotting that one of these proteins, P35, is upregulated at the onset of stationary phase in vitro. Northern analysis revealed that the upregulation of P35 is(More)
Spirochetes belong to a widely diverse family of bacteria. Several species in this family can cause a variety of illnesses including syphilis and Lyme disease. Despite the fact that the complete genome sequence of two species, Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum, have been deciphered, much remains to be understood about spirochetal gene regulation.(More)
To fight, flee or hide are the imperatives of long-term survival by an infectious microbe. Active immune suppression, induction of immune tolerance, phase and antigenic variation, intracellular seclusion, and incursion into immune privileged sites are examples of survival strategies of persistent pathogens. Here we critically review the supporting evidence(More)
Leishmania sp. protozoa contain an abundant surface protease (gp63) that is important for the virulence of the parasite. We found that the average amount of gp63 expressed by Leishmania donovani chagasi promastigotes increases 6-11-fold as they develop from a less infectious form in logarithmic phase to a highly infectious form during stationary phase of(More)
bmp gene family 36 of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, comprises four paralogs: bmpA, bmpB, bmpC, and bmpD. The bmpA and bmpB genes constitute an operon. All four genes have been found to be transcribed in cultured spirochetes. Expression from the bmpAB operon results in three distinct transcripts of 1.1, 1.6, and 2.4 kb, and the relative(More)
During in vitro growth Leishmania chagasi promastigotes differentially express 3 classes of RNAs encoding the major surface protease (MSP) gp63 that can be distinguished by their unique 3' untranslated regions. Here we show that the three classes (logarithmic-specific, stationary-specific and constitutively expressed) are encoded by a family of at least 4(More)