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Reflectivity degradation of grazing-incident extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mirror samples by EUV exposure was investigated in a commercial XTS 13-35 EUV source. The roughness of EUV exposed samples increases with an increase in exposure time due to the erosion of sample surface by ions and neutrals, or deposition of contaminant such as carbon on the sample(More)
Generation of debris in extreme ultraviolet ͑EUV͒ light sources is an inherent and real threat to the lifetime of collection optics. Debris measurement of these sources is useful to enable source suppliers to estimate collector lifetime. At the Center for Plasma Material Interactions ͑CPMI͒ at the University of Illinois, an Illinois calibrated spherical(More)
Using a newly designed and built plasma diagnostic system, the plasma parameters were investigated on a commercial 200 mm high-power hollow cathode magnetron ͑HCM͒ physical vapor deposition tool using Ta target under argon plasma. A three dimensional ͑3D͒ scanning radio frequency ͑rf͒-compensated Langmuir probe was constructed to measure the spatial(More)
A novel series of murine monoclonal antibodies to islet cells (1–45, 1–51, 1–52 and 1–39) have been generated using human insulinoma homogenate as the immunogen in order to characterize pathogenetically relevant islet cell autoantigen(s). Differentiation antigens recognized by these islet cell monoclonal antibodies displayed varied cytological distribution(More)
An RF-assisted closed-field dual magnetron sputtering system was developed to characterize the plasma and the ionization fraction of sputtered material to provide a suitable system for depositing optical thin films on large-area substrates at low temperatures (<130 • C). The 'prototype' system consists of dual 76 mm dc magnetrons operated at both balanced(More)
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