Ramanathan Nagarajan

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Bacterial spores such as Bacillus atrophaeus are one of the most resistant life forms known and are extremely resistant to chemical and environmental factors in the dormant state. During germination, as bacterial spores progress towards the vegetative state, they become susceptible to anti-sporal agents. B. atrophaeus spores were exposed to the(More)
Knowledge of nanoparticle (NP)-membrane interactions is important to advances in nanomedicine as well as for determining the safety of NPs to humans and the ecosystem. This study focuses on a unique mechanism of cytotoxicity, cell membrane destabilization, which is principally dependent on the nanoparticle nature of the material rather than on its molecular(More)
The surface of dormant Bacillus anthracis spores consists of a multilayer of protein coats and a thick peptidoglycan layer that allow the cells to resist chemical and environmental insults. During germination, the spore coat is degraded, making the spore susceptible to chemical inactivation by antisporal agents as well as to mechanical inactivation by(More)
Bacillus anthracis spores contain on their surface multilayered protein coats that provide barrier properties, mechanical strength, and elasticity that aid in protecting the sporulated state and preventing germination, outgrowth, and transition into the virulent vegetative bacterial state. In this work, the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) chrysophsin-3 was(More)
Alamethicin is a 20-amino-acid, α-helical antimicrobial peptide that is believed to kill bacteria through pore formation in the inner membranes. We used quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) to explore the interactions of alamethicin with a supported lipid bilayer. Changes in frequency (Δf) and dissipation (ΔD) measured at(More)
Electrospun membranes were studied for the chemical deactivation of threat agents by means of enzymatic proteins. Protein loading and the surface chemistry of hybrid nanofibers influenced the efficacy by which embedded enzymes could digest the substrate of interest. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), selected as a model protein, was electrospun into biologically(More)
Many antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) kill bacteria by disrupting the lipid bilayer structure of their inner membrane. However, there is only limited quantitative information in the literature to differentiate between AMPs of differing molecular properties, in terms of how they interact with the membrane. In this study, we have used quartz crystal microbalance(More)
Explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was carried out for the antimicrobial peptides (i) Cecropin P1 and C-terminus cysteine modified Cecropin P1 (Cecropin P1 C) in solution, (ii) Cecropin P1 and Cecropin P1 C adsorbed onto coesite -Si - O - and Si - O - H surfaces, and (iii) Cecropin P1 C tethered to coesite -Si - O - surface with either(More)
Enhancing the stability of enzymes under different working environments is essential if the potential of enzyme-based applications is to be realized for nanomedicine, sensing and molecular diagnostics, and chemical and biological decontamination. In this study, we focus on the enzyme, organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH), which has shown great promise for the(More)
Closure systems for personnel protection applications, such as protective clothing or respirator face seals, should provide effective permeation barrier to toxic gases. Currently available mechanical closure systems based on the hook and loop types (example, Velcro) do not provide adequate barrier to gas permeation. To achieve hermetic sealing, we propose a(More)