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— Switched dynamical systems have shown great utility in modeling a variety of systems. Unfortunately, the determination of a numerical solution for the optimal control of such systems has proven difficult, since it demands optimal mode scheduling. Recently, we constructed an optimization algorithm to calculate a numerical solution to the problem subject to(More)
—The growing popularity of 3-D movies has led to the rapid development of numerous affordable consumer 3-D displays. In contrast, the development of technology to generate 3-D content has lagged behind considerably. In spite of significant improvements to the quality of imaging devices, the accuracy of the algorithms that generate 3-D data, and the hardware(More)
Sensor networks have been widely used for surveillance, monitoring, and tracking. Camera networks, in particular, provide a large amount of information that has traditionally been processed in a centralized manner employing a priori knowledge of camera location and of the physical layout of the environment. Unfortunately, these conventional requirements are(More)
One of the oldest problems in the study of dynamical systems is the calculation of an optimal control. Though the determination of a numerical solution for the general non-convex optimal control problem for hybrid systems has been pursued relentlessly to date, it has proven difficult, since it demands nominal mode scheduling. In this paper, we calculate a(More)
This paper proposes a cost function constructed from human data, the <i>human-based cost</i>, which is used to gauge the "human-like" nature of robotic walking. This cost function is constructed by utilizing motion capture data from a 9 subject straight line walking experiment. Employing a novel technique to process the data, we determine the times when the(More)
Though the variety of desktop real time stereo vision systems has grown considerably in the past several years, few make any verifiable claims about the accuracy of the algorithms used to construct 3D data or describe how the data generated by such systems, which is large in size, can be effectively distributed. In this paper, we describe a system that(More)
Article is made available in accordance with the publisher's policy and may be subject to US copyright law. Please refer to the publisher's site for terms of use. The MIT Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. Abstract. Switched systems, or systems whose control parameters include a(More)
Threat assessment during semiautonomous driving is used to determine when correcting a driver's input is required. Since current semiautonomous systems perform threat assessment by predicting a vehicle's future state while treating the driver's input as a disturbance, autonomous controller intervention is limited to a restricted regime. Improving vehicle(More)
In this paper, we present a framework for immersive 3D video conferencing and geographically distributed collaboration. Our multi-camera system performs a full-body 3D reconstruction of users in real time and renders their image in a virtual space allowing remote interaction between users and the virtual environment. The paper features an overview of the(More)
The study of controlled hybrid systems requires practical tools for approximation and comparison of system behaviors. Existing approaches to these problems impose undue restrictions on the system's continuous and discrete dynamics. Metrization and simulation of controlled hybrid systems is considered here in a unified framework by constructing a state space(More)