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It is fundamentally important that signaling gradients provide positional information to govern morphogenesis of multicellular organisms. Morphogen gradients can generate different cell types in specific spatial order at distinct threshold concentrations. However, it is largely unknown whether and how signaling gradients also control cell polarities by(More)
Differential modifications of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) determine DNA repair pathways at stalled replication forks. In yeast, PCNA monoubiquitination by the ubiquitin ligase (E3) yRad18 promotes translesion synthesis (TLS), whereas the lysine-63-linked polyubiquitination of PCNA by yRad5 (E3) promotes the error-free mode of bypass. The(More)
BACKGROUND We observed a syndrome of intermittent fevers, early-onset lacunar strokes and other neurovascular manifestations, livedoid rash, hepatosplenomegaly, and systemic vasculopathy in three unrelated patients. We suspected a genetic cause because the disorder presented in early childhood. METHODS We performed whole-exome sequencing in the initial(More)
It is believed that 3.2 billion bp of the human genome harbor approximately 35000 protein-coding genes. On average, one could expect one gene per 300000 nucleotides (nt). Although the distribution of the genes in the human genome is not random,it is rather surprising that a large number of genes overlap in the mammalian genomes. Thousands of overlapping(More)
Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mutations is important for the discovery of genetic predisposition to complex diseases. PCR resequencing is the method of choice for de novo SNP discovery. However, manual curation of putative SNPs has been a major bottleneck in the application of this method to high-throughput screening.(More)
The use of CRISPR/Cas9 as a genome-editing tool in various model organisms has radically changed targeted mutagenesis. Here, we present a high-throughput targeted mutagenesis pipeline using CRISPR/Cas9 technology in zebrafish that will make possible both saturation mutagenesis of the genome and large-scale phenotyping efforts. We describe a cloning-free(More)
Core binding factor (CBF) leukemias, those with translocations or inversions that affect transcription factor genes RUNX1 or CBFB, account for ~24% of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 25% of pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Current treatments for CBF leukemias are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with a 5-y survival rate(More)
Since the beginnings of domestication, the craniofacial architecture of the domestic dog has morphed and radiated to human whims. By beginning to define the genetic underpinnings of breed skull shapes, we can elucidate mechanisms of morphological diversification while presenting a framework for understanding human cephalic disorders. Using intrabreed(More)
To gain insight into melanoma pathogenesis, we characterized an insertional mouse mutant, TG3, that is predisposed to develop multiple melanomas. Physical mapping identified multiple tandem insertions of the transgene into intron 3 of Grm1 (encoding metabotropic glutamate receptor 1) with concomitant deletion of 70 kb of intronic sequence. To assess whether(More)
Costeff Syndrome, which is caused by mutations in the OPTIC ATROPHY 3 (OPA3) gene, is an early-onset syndrome characterized by urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid (MGC), optic atrophy and movement disorders, including ataxia and extrapyramidal dysfunction. The OPA3 protein is enriched in the inner mitochondrial membrane and has mitochondrial(More)