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Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) in the context of meningoencephalitis can occur with sufficient stressors. Video-EEG is a critical diagnostic tool in such complex cases. Once the diagnosis of PNES is confirmed by video-EEG, psychiatric consultation with psychotherapeutic intervention to address underlying psychopathology and specific stressors(More)
Hemifacial spasm is usually treated with botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injections, a proven symptomatic therapy. However, little has been reported on the long-term outcome of patients treated with BTX-A. We reviewed patients with hemifacial spasm treated with BTX-A at the University of Malaya Medical Centre between 1995 and 2003. Of the 82 patients in our BTX-A(More)
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