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Macroscopic polarization density, characteristic of ferroelectric phases, is stabilized by dipolar intermolecular interactions. These are weakened as materials become more fluid and of higher symmetry, limiting ferroelectricity to crystals and to smectic liquid crystal stackings of fluid layers. We report the SmAP(F), the smectic of fluid polar orthorhombic(More)
New banana shaped liquid crystals with a carbosilane unit at one end were synthesised and depending on the number of Si-atoms either antiferroelectric (AF) or ferroelectric (FE) switching polar smectic C phases have been obtained.
Soil chemistry can play an important role in determining plant diversity. Serpentine soils are usually toxic to many plant taxa, which limits plant diversity compared to that on adjacent non-serpentine soils. The usually high concentrations of toxic metals in serpentine soils are considered to be the edaphic factors that cause low diversity and high(More)
A dimethylsiloxane diluted polysiloxane side chain co-polymer with non-chiral banana-shaped mesogenic units shows an optically isotropic ferroelectric switching polar smectic C phase (SmCPF) consisting of a conglomerate of homogeneously chiral domains with opposite handedness.
Several unique optical properties have been obtained from freestanding films of a bent-core compound. Our experimental results indicate the existence of the antiferroelectric biaxial smectic-A (Sm A) phase. The critical exponent associated with the biaxiality through the uniaxial-antiferroelectric biaxial Sm A transition has been measured to be 0.82+/-0.04(More)
An achiral fixed bent-core nematic liquid crystal in an antiparallel aligned planar device is observed to form three distinct domains. Regions are observed which are achiral planar, as well as domains displaying both positive and negative chirality that are stable over a significant temperature interval. In such a device the presence of spontaneous positive(More)