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Reproductive history is the strongest risk factor for breast cancer after age, genetics and breast density. Increased breast cancer risk is entwined with a greater number of ovarian hormone-dependent reproductive cycles, yet the basis for this predisposition is unknown. Mammary stem cells (MaSCs) are located within a specialized niche in the basal(More)
Bone metastases are a frequent complication of many cancers that result in severe disease burden and pain. Since the late nineteenth century, it has been thought that the microenvironment of the local host tissue actively participates in the propensity of certain cancers to metastasize to specific organs, and that bone provides an especially fertile 'soil'.(More)
We have isolated cDNA clones corresponding to a novel mouse metalloproteinase inhibitor. Five overlapping cDNA clones contain most of the information for a prominent 4.5-kilobase transcript that was detected in RNA from mouse fibroblasts and adult tissues. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (ORF) for a protein of 212 amino acids that is 80%(More)
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in humans and will on average affect up to one in eight women in their lifetime in the United States and Europe. The Women's Health Initiative and the Million Women Study have shown that hormone replacement therapy is associated with an increased risk of incident and fatal breast cancer. In particular,(More)
Golgi beta1,6N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (MGAT5) is required in the biosynthesis of beta1,6GlcNAc-branched N-linked glycans attached to cell surface and secreted glycoproteins. Amounts of MGAT5 glycan products are commonly increased in malignancies, and correlate with disease progression. To study the functions of these N-glycans in development and(More)
BACKGROUND We have examined the relationships between the measured properties of breast tissue and mammographic density and other risk factors for breast cancer, using breast tissue obtained at forensic autopsy and not selected for the presence of abnormalities. METHODS We used randomly selected tissue blocks taken from breast tissue slices obtained by(More)
Osteoprotegerin-ligand (OPGL) is a key osteoclast differentiation/activation factor essential for bone remodeling. We report that mice lacking OPGL or its receptor RANK fail to form lobulo-alveolar mammary structures during pregnancy, resulting in death of newborns. Transplantation and OPGL-rescue experiments in opgl-/- and rank-/- pregnant females showed(More)
Over the past 50 years, steady growth in the field of metalloproteinase biology has shown that the degradation of extracellular matrix components represents only a fraction of the functions performed by these enzymes and has highlighted their fundamental roles in immunity. Metalloproteinases regulate aspects of immune cell development, effector function,(More)
Overexpression and hyperactivation of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) has been observed in human breast tumor biopsies. In addition, in vitro studies indicate that overexpression of IGF-IR is sufficient to transform cells such as mouse embryo fibroblasts and this receptor promotes proliferation and survival in breast cancer cell(More)
Extensive radiologically dense breast tissue is associated with a marked increase in breast cancer risk. To explore the biological basis for this association, we have examined the association of growth factors and stromal matrix proteins in breast tissue with mammographic densities. Ninety-two formalin-fixed paraffin blocks of breast tissues surrounding(More)