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Aberrant matrix deposition is a hallmark of pulmonary fibrosis and is characterized by an imbalance between matrix deposition and degradation. We have previously shown that mice harboring a conditional deletion of the GTP-binding protein, Rac1, in macrophages are protected from asbestos-induced pulmonary fibrosis. To investigate the contribution of aberrant(More)
BACKGROUND The PLUNC ("Palate, lung, nasal epithelium clone") protein is an abundant secretory product of epithelia present throughout the conducting airways of humans and other mammals, which is evolutionarily related to the lipid transfer/lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LT/LBP) family. Two members of this family--the bactericidal/permeability(More)
The lung is the major site expressing plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) mRNA in humans and mice, suggesting that this protein might have an important role in maintaining normal function of this organ. In the lung of human collagenase transgenic mice, an emphysematous animal model, PLTP mRNA was 3-fold higher than in control mice. However, the mRNA(More)
Epithelial host defense proteins comprise a critical component of the pulmonary innate immune response to infection. The short palate, lung, nasal epithelium clone (PLUNC) 1 (SPLUNC1) protein is a member of the bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) fold-containing (BPIF) protein family, sharing structural similarities with BPI-like proteins. SPLUNC1 is(More)
Glucocorticoids appear to play an integral role in stimulating surfactant synthesis by activating the rate-regulatory enzyme for phosphatidylcholine synthesis, CTP:cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase (CT). The activity of liver CT, in vitro, has been shown to be inhibited by the sphingomyelin hydrolysis product, sphingosine. In order to investigate the(More)
Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), the major phospholipid of animal membranes, is generated by its remodeling and de novo synthesis. Overexpression of the remodeling enzyme, LPCAT1 (acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase) in epithelia decreased de novo PtdCho synthesis without significantly altering cellular PtdCho mass. Overexpression of LPCAT1(More)
We investigated several indices involved in sphingomyelin metabolism in developing rat lung. The levels of sphingomyelin gradually increased during lung maturation, with highest levels observed postnatally. The content of sphingosine and ceramide, biologically active sphingomyelin degradation products, did not significantly change in microsomes during the(More)
Disaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) is the most distinctive surface-active lipid in pulmonary surfactant. The feeding of docosahexanoic acid (DHA) 22:6 n-3 has recently been described to elevate the levels of DSPC in rodent lung. The purpose of the present study was to determine the mechanisms by which this n-3 fatty acid might regulate(More)
In contrast to short-lived neutrophils, macrophages display persistent presence in the lung of animals after pulmonary exposure to carbon nanotubes. While effective in the clearance of bacterial pathogens and injured host cells, the ability of macrophages to "digest" carbonaceous nanoparticles has not been documented. Here, we used chemical, biochemical,(More)
This study uses human alveolar macrophages to determine whether activation of a phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is linked to activation of the p42/44 (ERK) kinases by LPS. LPS-induced ERK kinase activation was inhibited by tricyclodecan-9-yl xanthogenate (D609), a relatively specific inhibitor of PC-PLC. LPS also increased amounts(More)