Rama K. Mallampalli

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BACKGROUND The PLUNC ("Palate, lung, nasal epithelium clone") protein is an abundant secretory product of epithelia present throughout the conducting airways of humans and other mammals, which is evolutionarily related to the lipid transfer/lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LT/LBP) family. Two members of this family--the bactericidal/permeability(More)
In contrast to short-lived neutrophils, macrophages display persistent presence in the lung of animals after pulmonary exposure to carbon nanotubes. While effective in the clearance of bacterial pathogens and injured host cells, the ability of macrophages to "digest" carbonaceous nanoparticles has not been documented. Here, we used chemical, biochemical,(More)
Bacterial pneumonia remains a significant burden worldwide. Although an inflammatory response in the lung is required to fight the causative agent, persistent tissue-resident neutrophils in non-resolving pneumonia can induce collateral tissue damage and precipitate acute lung injury. However, little is known about mechanisms orchestrated in the lung tissue(More)
Pneumonia remains the leading cause of infectious deaths and yet fundamentally new conceptual models underlying its pathogenesis have not emerged. Patients and mice with bacterial pneumonia have marked elevations of cardiolipin in lung fluid, a rare, mitochondrial-specific phospholipid that potently disrupts surfactant function. Intratracheal cardiolipin in(More)
Uncontrolled activation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) proteins may result in profound tissue injury by linking surface signals to cytokine release. Here we show that a ubiquitin E3 ligase component, Fbxo3, potently stimulates cytokine secretion from human inflammatory cells by destabilizing a sentinel TRAF inhibitor, Fbxl2.(More)
Ceramide is a key bioactive mediator that inhibits surfactant phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) synthesis in lung epithelia. Ceramide availability is governed by sphingomyelin (SM) hydrolysis, but less is known regarding its de novo synthesis. In this study, we observed that ceramide synthesis within murine lung epithelia was associated with high-level ceramide(More)
Sphingolipids represent a diverse group of bioactive lipid species that are generated intracellularly in response to tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and are implicated as potential mediators of acute lung injury. The purpose of these studies was to determine if there is an extracellular, TNFα–regulated pool of sphingolipids in the alveolus that modulates the(More)
Neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G (CG) contribute to intracellular microbial killing but, if left unchecked and released extracellularly, promote tissue damage. Conversely, mechanisms that constrain neutrophil serine protease activity protect against tissue damage but may have the untoward effect of disabling the microbial killing arsenal. The host(More)
Aurora B kinase is an integral regulator of cytokinesis, as it stabilizes the intercellular canal within the midbody to ensure proper chromosomal segregation during cell division. Here we identified that the ubiquitin E3 ligase complex SCF(FBXL2) mediates Aurora B ubiquitination and degradation within the midbody, which is sufficient to induce mitotic(More)
Gene therapy requires the presence of a robust and yet small promoter to drive high-level expression of desired proteins. In comparative analysis, we investigated the promoter strength of the CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase promoter (CCT alpha) with other commonly used promoters, which were all cloned into a similar background vector (PGL3 basic).(More)