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By comparative genomics based on chromosome synteny between human and fish, IL-22, IL-26 and two IFN-gamma-like genes have been isolated in fish. Interleukin-22 and -26 have been identified for the first time outside of mammals and their organization and synteny demonstrates that this cluster of cytokines is well conserved during evolution. The cloned(More)
In teleosts, the genomic organization of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (H)-chain locus was thought to follow a typical translocon-type multigene structure; however, recent studies have indicated a variation in the structure and this might be teleost specific. Isotypes of the Ig H-chain, namely IgM, IgD, IgZ and IgT, have been identified. In this study, we(More)
IL-26 is classified as a member of the IL-10 cytokine family because it has limited sequence homology to IL-10 and the IL-10-related cytokines. The human IL-26 gene, IL26, is located on chromosome 12q15 between the genes for two other important class-2 cytokines, IFNG (IFN-γ) and IL22 (IL-22). IL-26 is often co-expressed with IL-22 by activated T cells,(More)
The HLA-C locus is distinct relative to the other classical HLA class I loci in that it has relatively limited polymorphism, lower expression on the cell surface, and more extensive ligand-receptor interactions with killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 35 kb upstream of HLA-C (rs9264942; termed -35) associates(More)
Synthetic oligonucleotides (ODN) expressing CpG motifs mimic the ability of bacterial DNA to trigger the innate immune system via TLR9. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) make a critical contribution to the ensuing immune response. This work examines the induction of antiviral (IFN-β) and pro-inflammatory (IL-6) cytokines by CpG-stimulated human pDCs and(More)
The first IL-6 sequence in fish has been determined in Fugu rubripes by exploiting the synteny that is found between some regions of the human and Fugu genomes. The predicted 227 aa IL-6 homologue contains the IL-6/G-CSF/MGF motif, has a predicted secondary structure of four alpha-helixes but only contains two of the four cysteines important in disulphide(More)
Cytokines are one of the major signaling molecules involved in immunity. Many of these cytokines have been isolated in vertebrates and found to play a significant role in host defense mechanism. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) family of genes are known to have pro-inflammatory actions and associated with specific disease conditions, these genes are conserved across(More)
IFNL3, which encodes interferon-λ3 (IFN-λ3), has received considerable attention in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) field, as many independent genome-wide association studies have identified a strong association between polymorphisms near IFNL3 and clearance of HCV. However, the mechanism underlying this association has remained elusive. In this study, we(More)
Cytokines are important regulators of immune system and finding these genes in fish have potential applications for the development of vaccines and or immunostimulants for aquaculture. Major hurdle in discovering cytokines from fish is the low identities of these molecules when compared to its mammalian counterparts. In fish, prior to pufferfish (Fugu(More)
Vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) represent a novel approach to the treatment of cancer, resulting in the collapse of tumor vasculature and tumor death. 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) is a VDA currently in advanced phase II clinical trials, yet its precise mechanism of action is unknown despite extensive preclinical and clinical(More)