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The HLA-C locus is distinct relative to the other classical HLA class I loci in that it has relatively limited polymorphism, lower expression on the cell surface, and more extensive ligand-receptor interactions with killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 35 kb upstream of HLA-C (rs9264942; termed -35) associates(More)
In teleosts, the genomic organization of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (H)-chain locus was thought to follow a typical translocon-type multigene structure; however, recent studies have indicated a variation in the structure and this might be teleost specific. Isotypes of the Ig H-chain, namely IgM, IgD, IgZ and IgT, have been identified. In this study, we(More)
Fish and shellfish diseases are a constant threat to the sustainability and economic viability of aquaculture. Early diagnosis plays a vital role in management of fish and shellfish diseases. Traditionally, various biochemical and serological tests have been used for fish disease diagnosis. However, the time and expertise required for such diagnoses makes(More)
Synthetic oligonucleotides (ODN) expressing CpG motifs mimic the ability of bacterial DNA to trigger the innate immune system via TLR9. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) make a critical contribution to the ensuing immune response. This work examines the induction of antiviral (IFN-β) and pro-inflammatory (IL-6) cytokines by CpG-stimulated human pDCs and(More)
In fish, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-21 and IL-15 genes have recently been identified by in-silico cloning. Fish IL-15 gene is similar to counterparts from mammals and other vertebrates. A zebrafish genomic database-search initiated to find IL-2 and IL-21 genes from zebrafish (Danio rerio) led to the identification of an IL-15 like gene (IL-15L). This gene was(More)
Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), being the hallmark of the T-cell T(H)1 response, has been extensively studied with respect to its expression and regulation of immune function. This gene has been extensively characterized in many mammalian species, making it one of the most widely cloned immunoregulatory genes. Recently, the gene has been identified in avian(More)
IFNL3, which encodes interferon-λ3 (IFN-λ3), has received considerable attention in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) field, as many independent genome-wide association studies have identified a strong association between polymorphisms near IFNL3 and clearance of HCV. However, the mechanism underlying this association has remained elusive. In this study, we(More)
Cytokines are important regulators of immune system and finding these genes in fish have potential applications for the development of vaccines and or immunostimulants for aquaculture. Major hurdle in discovering cytokines from fish is the low identities of these molecules when compared to its mammalian counterparts. In fish, prior to pufferfish (Fugu(More)
Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is an IL-10 family cytokine produced by T cells and innate lymphoid cells. The IL-22 signaling pathway orchestrates mucosal immune defense and tissue regeneration through pleiotropic effects including pro-survival signaling, cell migration, dysplasia and angiogenesis. While these functions can prevent initial establishment of tumors,(More)