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The HLA-C locus is distinct relative to the other classical HLA class I loci in that it has relatively limited polymorphism, lower expression on the cell surface, and more extensive ligand-receptor interactions with killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 35 kb upstream of HLA-C (rs9264942; termed -35) associates(More)
Synthetic oligonucleotides (ODN) expressing CpG motifs mimic the ability of bacterial DNA to trigger the innate immune system via TLR9. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) make a critical contribution to the ensuing immune response. This work examines the induction of antiviral (IFN-β) and pro-inflammatory (IL-6) cytokines by CpG-stimulated human pDCs and(More)
In teleosts, the genomic organization of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (H)-chain locus was thought to follow a typical translocon-type multigene structure; however, recent studies have indicated a variation in the structure and this might be teleost specific. Isotypes of the Ig H-chain, namely IgM, IgD, IgZ and IgT, have been identified. In this study, we(More)
IL-26 is classified as a member of the IL-10 cytokine family because it has limited sequence homology to IL-10 and the IL-10-related cytokines. The human IL-26 gene, IL26, is located on chromosome 12q15 between the genes for two other important class-2 cytokines, IFNG (IFN-γ) and IL22 (IL-22). IL-26 is often co-expressed with IL-22 by activated T cells,(More)
Fish and shellfish diseases are a constant threat to the sustainability and economic viability of aquaculture. Early diagnosis plays a vital role in management of fish and shellfish diseases. Traditionally, various biochemical and serological tests have been used for fish disease diagnosis. However, the time and expertise required for such diagnoses makes(More)
Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), being the hallmark of the T-cell T(H)1 response, has been extensively studied with respect to its expression and regulation of immune function. This gene has been extensively characterized in many mammalian species, making it one of the most widely cloned immunoregulatory genes. Recently, the gene has been identified in avian(More)
In fish, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-21 and IL-15 genes have recently been identified by in-silico cloning. Fish IL-15 gene is similar to counterparts from mammals and other vertebrates. A zebrafish genomic database-search initiated to find IL-2 and IL-21 genes from zebrafish (Danio rerio) led to the identification of an IL-15 like gene (IL-15L). This gene was(More)
In fish, two types of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) genes, namely, IgM and IgD, have been cloned and characterized. Recently, a new IGH isotype specific to teleosts had been identified from zebra fish, rainbow trout, and fugu. In zebra fish, the domains of this new gene are present upstream of the mu region along the IGH locus. During this study, a novel(More)
Non specific cytotoxic cells are natural killer cell equivalent in teleosts. These cells are known to mediate innate immune responses in fishes. In this study, from tilapia, a non-specific cytotoxic cell receptor protein (NCCRP) like cDNA composed of 960 bps with a 12 bps 5' UTR, 702 bps open reading frame and 246 bps 3' UTR has been cloned. The predicted(More)