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To understand how the skeletal muscle lineage is induced during vertebrate embryogenesis, we have sought to identify the regulatory molecules that mediate induction of the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD and Myf-5. In this work, we demonstrate that either signals from the overlying ectoderm or Wnt and Sonic hedgehog signals can induce somitic expression of(More)
Neuropilin-1 (np1) and neuropilin-2 (np2) are receptors for class-3 semaphorins and for several isoforms of VEGF. We have cloned and characterized two chick isoforms of np2 cDNA. Expression patterns of np1, np2, and ephrin-B2 were compared in the developing vascular system of 24-72 h old chick embryos. We show for the first time that np2 is expressed in(More)
The paired-box transcription factor Pax7 plays a critical role in the specification of satellite cells in mouse skeletal muscle. In the present study, the position and number of Pax7-expressing cells found in muscles of growing and adult chickens confirm the presence of this protein in avian satellite cells. The expression pattern of Pax7 protein, along(More)
Regeneration in adult chordates is confined to a few model cases and terminates in restoration of restricted tissues and organs. Here, we study the unique phenomenon of whole body regeneration (WBR) in the colonial urochordate Botrylloides leachi in which an entire adult zooid is restored from a miniscule blood vessel fragment. In contrast to all other(More)
The vertebrate intermediate mesoderm (IM) is highly patterned along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. In the chick embryo, the kidney tissue, which is a derivative of the IM, is generated only from IM located posterior to the sixth somite axial level, which also marks the border between cranial and trunk segments. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that(More)
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) has been reported to act as a mitogen and survival factor for muscle satellite cells. However, its role in their differentiation remains ambiguous. Here, we provide evidence that Shh promotes the proliferation and differentiation of primary cultures of chicken adult myoblasts (also termed satellite cells) and mouse myogenic C2 cells.(More)
The signaling pathways leading to growth and patterning of various organs are tightly controlled during the development of any organism. These control mechanisms usually involve the utilization of feedback- and pathway-specific antagonists where the pathway induces the expression of its own antagonist. Sef is a feedback antagonist of fibroblast growth(More)
Many advanced snakes use fangs-specialized teeth associated with a venom gland-to introduce venom into prey or attacker. Various front- and rear-fanged groups are recognized, according to whether their fangs are positioned anterior (for example cobras and vipers) or posterior (for example grass snakes) in the upper jaw. A fundamental controversy in snake(More)
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) has been shown to promote adult myoblast proliferation and differentiation and affect Akt phosphorylation via its effector Smoothened (Smo). Here, the relationship between Shh and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was examined with regard to myogenic differentiation via signaling pathways which regulate this process. Each factor(More)
Stem cell populations exist in "niches" that hold them and regulate their fate decisions. Identification and characterization of these niches is essential for understanding stem cell maintenance and tissue regeneration. Here we report on the identification of a novel stem cell niche in Botryllus schlosseri, a colonial urochordate with high stem(More)