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To understand how the skeletal muscle lineage is induced during vertebrate embryogenesis, we have sought to identify the regulatory molecules that mediate induction of the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD and Myf-5. In this work, we demonstrate that either signals from the overlying ectoderm or Wnt and Sonic hedgehog signals can induce somitic expression of(More)
Previous work has indicated that signals from the neural tube, notochord, and surface ectoderm promote somitic myogenesis. Here, we show that somitic myogenesis is under negative regulation as well; BMP signaling serves to inhibit the activation of MyoD and Myf5 in Pax3-expressing cells. Furthermore, we show that the BMP antagonist Noggin is expressed(More)
Neuropilin-1 (np1) and neuropilin-2 (np2) are receptors for class-3 semaphorins and for several isoforms of VEGF. We have cloned and characterized two chick isoforms of np2 cDNA. Expression patterns of np1, np2, and ephrin-B2 were compared in the developing vascular system of 24-72 h old chick embryos. We show for the first time that np2 is expressed in(More)
Regeneration in adult chordates is confined to a few model cases and terminates in restoration of restricted tissues and organs. Here, we study the unique phenomenon of whole body regeneration (WBR) in the colonial urochordate Botrylloides leachi in which an entire adult zooid is restored from a miniscule blood vessel fragment. In contrast to all other(More)
Many advanced snakes use fangs-specialized teeth associated with a venom gland-to introduce venom into prey or attacker. Various front- and rear-fanged groups are recognized, according to whether their fangs are positioned anterior (for example cobras and vipers) or posterior (for example grass snakes) in the upper jaw. A fundamental controversy in snake(More)
The signaling pathways leading to growth and patterning of various organs are tightly controlled during the development of any organism. These control mechanisms usually involve the utilization of feedback- and pathway-specific antagonists where the pathway induces the expression of its own antagonist. Sef is a feedback antagonist of fibroblast growth(More)
The vertebrate intermediate mesoderm (IM) is highly patterned along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. In the chick embryo, the kidney tissue, which is a derivative of the IM, is generated only from IM located posterior to the sixth somite axial level, which also marks the border between cranial and trunk segments. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that(More)
BACKGROUND The restoration of adults from fragments of blood vessels in botryllid ascidians (termed whole body regeneration [WBR]) represents an inimitable event in the chordates, which is poorly understood on the mechanistic level. RESULTS To elucidate mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, a subtracted EST library for early WBR stages was previously(More)
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