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6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a dopaminergic neurotoxin putatively involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Its neurotoxicity has been related to the production of reactive oxygen species. In this study we examine the effects of the antioxidants ascorbic acid (AA), glutathione (GSH), cysteine (CySH), and N-acetyl-CySH (NAC) on the(More)
The results of several in vitro studies have shown that cysteine prodrugs, particularly N-acetylcysteine, are effective antioxidants that increase the survival of dopaminergic neurons. N-acetylcysteine can be systemically administered to deliver cysteine to the brain and is of potential use for providing neuroprotection in the treatment of Parkinson's(More)
The autoxidation and monoamine oxidase (MAO)-mediated metabolism of dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine; DA) cause a continuous production of hydroxyl radical (*OH), which is further enhanced by the presence of iron (ferrous iron, Fe(2+) and ferric ion, Fe(3+)). The accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence of Fe(2+) appears to discard the(More)
The ability of aluminium to affect the oxidant status of specific areas of the brain (cerebellum, ventral midbrain, cortex, hippocampus, striatum) was investigated in rats intraperitoneally treated with aluminium chloride (10 mg Al3+/kg/day) for 10 days. The potential of aluminium to act as an etiological factor in Parkinson's disease (PD) was assessed by(More)
It is now established that the brain possesses a local renin-angiotensin system and that angiotensin II exerts multiple actions in the nervous system, including regulation of striatal dopamine release. Furthermore, angiotensin activates NADPH-dependent oxidases, which are a major source of superoxide, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, commonly(More)
There is growing evidence indicating that oxidative stress is a key contributor to the pathogenesis and progression of Parkinson's disease. The brain, and particularly the basal ganglia, possesses a local rennin-angiotensin system. Angiotensin activates NAD(P)H-dependent oxidases, which are a major intracellular source of superoxide, and angiotensin(More)
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are two pathophysiological factors often associated with the neurodegenerative process involved in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is able to cause dopaminergic neurodegeneration in experimental models of PD by an oxidative stress-mediated process, the underlying molecular(More)
1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ) and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (THbetaC) are two endogenous or exogenous dopaminergic proneurotoxicants supposedly involved in the etiology of Parkinson's disease. We investigated whether the chronic administration of a twice daily dose of a cigarette smoke solution might modify the endogenous concentrations of(More)
Angiotensin II activates (via type 1 receptors) NAD(P)H-dependent oxidases, which are a major source of superoxide, and is relevant in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases and certain degenerative changes associated with ageing. Given that there is a brain renin-angiotensin system and that oxidative stress is a key contributor to Parkinson's(More)
The relation between changes in the concentrations of some of the neuroactive extracellular amino acids (glutamate, aspartate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glycine and taurine) and epileptic seizures has been tested in a new experimental model of seizures induced by picrotoxin microdialysis in chronic freely moving rats. During ictal discharges (paroxysmal(More)