Ralph W Metcalfe

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The in vitro sensitivity of continuous flow pumps to preload and afterload pressure has been well characterized. We compared flow in the Jarvik 2000 and HeartMate II continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) at different inflow and outflow pressures and different pump speeds. This allowed us to measure the impact of a changing inflow pressure(More)
Both structural and functional evaluations of the endothelium exist in order to diagnose cardiovascular disease (CVD) in its asymptomatic stages. Vascular reactivity, a functional evaluation of the endothelium in response to factors such as occlusion, cold, and stress, in addition to plasma markers, is the most widely accepted test and has been found to be(More)
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES Small metallic stents are increasingly used in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms and for revascularization in ischemic strokes. Realistic three-dimensional datasets of a stent were obtained by using three x-ray-based imaging methods in current clinical use. Multislice-CT (MS-CT), C-arm flat detector-CT (C-arm CT, ACT), and flat(More)
In this issue of the AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, Steinman et al, in their article, “ImageBased Computational Simulation of Flow Dynamics in a Giant Intracranial Aneurysm,” show the potential usefulness of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a practical tool that can be used in the diagnosis, therapeutic planning, and postoperative monitoring(More)
Digital thermal monitoring (DTM) of vascular function during cuff-occlusive reactive hyperemia relies on the premise that changes in fingertip temperature during and after an ischemic stimulus reflect changes in blood flow. To determine its utility in individuals with and without known coronary heart disease (CHD), 133 consecutive individuals (age 54 +/- 10(More)
Complications of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques (rupture, luminal and mural thrombosis, intraplaque hemorrhage, rapid progression to stenosis, spasm, and so forth) lead to heart attacks and strokes. It remains difficult to identify what plaques are vulnerable to these complications. Despite recent developments such as thermography, spectroscopy, and(More)
The strength and direction of blood flow into and within a cerebral aneurysm are important issues in developing effective interventional strategies to stabilize the aneurysm. We tested the hypothesis that there are significant major hemodynamic features that are common to many aneurysm flows of the type studied here. This was investigated by performing(More)
The noninvasive measurement of peripheral vascular reactivity, as an indicator of vascular function, provides a valuable tool for cardiovascular screening of at-risk populations. Practical and economical considerations demand that such a test be low-cost and simple to use. To this end, it is advantageous to substitute digital thermal monitoring (DTM) for(More)
Continuous flow pumps are increasingly used to treat severe heart failure. These pumps alter flow physiology by lowering pulsatility in the arterial circulation. In patients with peripheral stenosis, continuous flow pumps may lead to thrombosis of peripheral vessels, possibly predisposing to vascular thrombosis in areas of non-flow-limiting stenosis. The(More)
We developed a mock circulatory loop and used mathematical modeling to test the in vitro performance of a physiologic flow control system for a total artificial heart (TAH). The TAH was constructed from two continuous flow pumps. The objective of the control system was to maintain loop flow constant in response to changes in outflow resistance of either(More)