Ralph T. Schwarz

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GPIs isolated from Toxoplasma gondii, as well as a chemically synthesized GPI lacking the lipid moiety, activated a reporter gene in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing TLR4, while the core glycan and lipid moieties cleaved from the GPIs activated both TLR4- and TLR2-expressing cells. MyD88, but not TLR2, TLR4, or CD14, is absolutely needed to trigger(More)
We have sequenced the genome of the emerging human pathogen Babesia microti and compared it with that of other protozoa. B. microti has the smallest nuclear genome among all Apicomplexan parasites sequenced to date with three chromosomes encoding ∼3500 polypeptides, several of which are species specific. Genome-wide phylogenetic analyses indicate that B.(More)
Recently, a class of protein antigens of high relative molecular mass (Mt) which can induce protective immunity against blood-stage malaria has been identified. In Plasmodium falciparum the protein has a Mr of approximately 195,000 (P195). It is the precursor of three proteins of Mr 83,000 (83K), 42K and 19K which are the major surface antigens of(More)
Sphingolipids are ubiquitous and essential components of eukaryotic membranes, particularly the plasma membrane. The biosynthetic pathway for the formation of these lipid species is conserved up to the formation of sphinganine. However, a divergence is apparent in the synthesis of complex sphingolipids. In animal cells, ceramide is a substrate for(More)
This study investigates protein glycosylation in the asexual intraerythrocytic stage of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and the presence in the infected erythrocyte of the respective precursors. In in vitro cultures, P. falciparum can be metabolically labeled with radioactive sugars, and its multiplication can be affected by glycosylation(More)
Influenza-virus-infected cells were labelled with radioactive sugars and extracted to give fractions containing lipid-linked oligosaccharides and glycoproteins. The oligosaccharides linked to lipid were of the 'high-mannose' type and contained glucose. In the glycoprotein fraction, radioactivity was associated with virus proteins and found to occur(More)
In this study, we demonstrate that glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is a major toxin of Plasmodium falciparum origin responsible for nitric oxide (NO) production in host cells. Purified malarial GPI is sufficient to induce NO release in a time- and dose-dependent manner in macrophages and vascular endothelial cells, and regulates inducible NO synthase(More)
In this study we demonstrate that glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) of malaria parasite origin directly increases cell adhesion molecule expression in purified HUVECs in a dose- and time-dependent manner, resulting in a marked increase in parasite and leukocyte cytoadherence to these target cells. The structurally related glycolipids(More)
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous parasitic protozoan causing congenital infection and severe encephalitis in the course of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositols of T. gondii have been shown to be identical with the low molecular weight antigen which elicits an early immunoglobulin M immune response in humans. A detailed(More)
Plasmodium falciparum accumulates the two merozoite surface proteins-1 and -2 during schizogony. Both proteins are proposed to be anchored in membranes by glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol membrane anchors. In this report the identity of these GPI-anchors is confirmed by labelling with tritiated precursors and additionally by specific enzymatic and chemical(More)