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This paper describes an experiment that compares behaviour in small groups when they carry out a task in a virtual environment (VE) and then continue the same task in a similar real-world environment. The purpose of the experiment was not to examine task performance, but to compare various aspects of the social relations between the group members in the two(More)
The realism of avatars in terms of behavioral and form is critical to the development of collaborative virtual environments. In the study we utilized state of the art, real-time face tracking technology to track and render facial expressions unobtrusively in a desktop CVE. Participants in dyads interacted with each other via either a videoconference (high(More)
In this study we compared collaboration on a puzzle-solving task carried out by two persons in a virtual and a real environment. The task, putting together a cube consisting of different colored blocks in a "Rubiks" cube-type puzzle, was performed both in a shared virtual environment (VE) setting, using a Cave-type virtual reality (VR) system networked with(More)
In this paper we present the results of a trial in which two participants collaborated on a puzzle-solving task in networked virtual environments. The task was a Rubik's cube type puzzle, and this meant that the two participants had to interact with the space and with each other very intensivelyFand they did this successfully despite the limitation of the(More)
This paper describes two methods for analyzing interactions in collaborative virtual environments (CVEs): one whereby quantitative data are captured, interaction is categorized into a number of activities, and statistical analysis can be performed on frequencies and sequences of events. The other is based on the transcription of individual fragments of(More)
This study examines pairs of subjects who used networked immersive projection technology systems to collaborate on five tasks over an extended period of time (210+ minutes). The aim was to compare zero history and mutual history partners, to examine how their experience changed over time, and compare their experience of different tasks. Analysis yields a(More)
Virtual environments systems based on immersive projection technologies (IPTs) offer users the possibility to collaborate intuitively in a three-dimensional environment. While considerable work has been done on examining interaction in desktop-based collaborative virtual environments (CVEs), there are currently no studies for collaborative interaction using(More)
Collaboration at a distance has long been a research goal of distributed virtual environments. A number of recent technologies, including immersive projection technology systems (IPTs) and head-mounted displays (HMDs), promise a new generation of technologies that are more intuitive to use than desktop-based systems. This paper presents an experiment that(More)