Ralph Schäfer

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Evaluation-oriented information provision is a function performed by many systems that serve as personal assistants, advisors, or sales assistants. Five general tasks are distinguished which need to be addressed by such systems. For each task, techniques employed in a sample of systems are discussed , and it is shown how the lessons learned from these(More)
The IP3 receptor is involved in Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores. Recently, we purified an inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor from rat liver plasma membrane (LPM-IP3R) [Schäfer R. Hell K. Fleischer S. (1993) Purification of an IP3 receptor from liver plasma membrane. Biophys. J. 66, A146]. The purified LPM-IP3 receptor was incorporated into(More)
For the last two decades, configuration systems relying on AI techniques have successfully been applied in industrial environments. These systems support the configuration of complex products and services in shorter time with fewer errors and, therefore, reduce the costs of a mass-customization business model. The European Union–funded project entitled(More)
1. The ether-à-go-go-related gene (erg)-like K+ current in rat lactotrophs from primary culture was characterized and compared with that in clonal rat pituitary cells (GH3/B6). The class III antiarrhythmic E-4031 known to block specifically erg K+ channels was used to isolate the erg-like current as the E-4031-sensitive current. The experiments were(More)
Recent advances in user modeling technology have brought within reach the goal of having systems adapt to temporary limitations of the user's available time and working memory capacity. We first summarize empirical research by ourselves and others that sheds light on the causes and consequences of these (continually changing) resource limitations. We then(More)
Bayesian networks have been successfully applied to the assessment of user properties which remain unchanged during a session. However, many properties of a person vary over time, thus raising new questions of network modeling. In this paper we characterize different types of dependencies that occur in networks that deal with the modeling of temporally(More)
The modeling of noncooperative dialogs, as opposed to dialogs in which the goals of the participants coincide, presents novel challenges to a pragmatically oriented dialog system. PRACMA models noncooperative sales dialogs. In the role of the potential buyer of a used car, the system tries to arrive at a realistic evaluation of the unknown car in spite of(More)
In this paper, we show that Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT), a prescription for evaluating objects, can be ascribed as evaluation process to a user when estimating the user's interests. Some rules are proposed for the application of MAUT. Estimation of a user's interests in recommender systems is very important, because these interests are the basis(More)
The functional role of the inward-rectifying erg-like K+ current in rat lactotrophs was studied by the use of a selective blocker, the class III antiarrhythmic agent E-4031. The erg-like current was measured as drug-sensitive current in physiological K+ gradient. In the range of the normal resting membrane potential of rat lactotrophs (around -45 mV) the(More)