Ralph S. Caraballo

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Tobacco use and addiction most often begin during youth and young adulthood. Youth use of tobacco in any form is unsafe. To determine the prevalence and trends of current (past 30-day) use of nine tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, hookahs, tobacco pipes, snus, dissolvable tobacco, and bidis) among U.S. middle (grades(More)
CONTEXT Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is a marker of exposure to tobacco smoke. Previous studies suggest that non-Hispanic blacks have higher levels of serum cotinine than non-Hispanic whites who report similar levels of cigarette smoking. OBJECTIVE To investigate differences in levels of serum cotinine in black, white, and Mexican American(More)
Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is widely used to distinguish smokers from nonsmokers in epidemiologic studies and smoking-cessation clinical trials. As the magnitude of secondhand smoke exposure declines because of proportionally fewer smokers and more clean-indoor-air regulations, the optimal cotinine cutpoint with which to distinguish smokers from(More)
Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 480,000 premature deaths and more than $300 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year (1). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 objective of reducing the percentage of U.S. adults(More)
INTRODUCTION Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. METHODS We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys(More)
The discrepancy between cigarette smoking status reported during an interview and measured level of serum cotinine, a nicotine biomarker, was investigated in a representative sample of the US population aged >/=17 years (N = 15,357). Data were collected from participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Among(More)
No national data have been used to compare self-reported and biochemically assessed cigarette smoking status among adolescents. We investigated discrepancies between self-reported smoking and measurement of serum cotinine concentration among adolescents aged 12-17 years in a representative sample (n=2,107) of the U.S. population. Smoking prevalence was(More)
INTRODUCTION U.S. data on adult tobacco use and the relationship between such use and tobacco-related health disparities are primarily limited to broad racial or ethnic populations. To monitor progress in tobacco control among adults living in the United States, we present information on tobacco use for both aggregated and disaggregated racial and ethnic(More)
BACKGROUND Approximately one-fourth of all cigarettes sold in the United States have the descriptor "menthol" on the cigarette pack. It is important to determine what socio-demographic factors are associated with smoking menthol cigarettes if indeed these types of cigarettes are related to smoking initiation, higher exposure to smoke constituents, nicotine(More)