Ralph Norgren

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One or two bottle preference tests, i.e., relative fluid consumption, constitute the primary methodology for determining acceptance or rejection of tastes in animals other than humans. These tests require organisms to initiate and maintain drinking behavior, and, therefore, can not be applied to preparations which do not eat or drink spontaneously. The(More)
The precise cytoarchitectural localization of taste-elicited cortical responses in the rat was studied using a combination of anatomical and physiological techniques. Multi-unit responses to tongue tactile, thermal and gustatory stimuli were recorded along 97 electrode penetrations positioned parallel to the lateral convexity of the brain and marking(More)
The taste reactivity test described in the preceding paper was used to begin determining the capacity of brain stem structures to execute and regulate ingestive behavior. Both chronic thalamic and chronic decerebrate rat preparations were examined repeatedly, and their gustatory mimetic responses compared through frame-by-frame videotape analysis with the(More)
The efferent projections of the parvicellular division of the ventroposteromedial nucleus of the thalamus (VMPpc; thalamic taste area) were traced to cortex in Macaca fascicularis by using tritiated amino acid autoradiography. Labeled fascicles could be traced from VPMpc to two discrete regions of cortex. The primary efferent projection was located on(More)
The projections of a third order gustatory relay in the dorsal pons of rats have been traced using tritiated proline autoradiography and antidromic activation of pontine neurons from electrodes in the thalamus and amygdala. Labelled axons collect in the central tegmental tract and ascend to the thalamic taste area in the medial extension of the ventrobasal(More)
The central distributions of gustatory and non-gustatory branches of cranial nerves V, VII, IX, and X were examined after application of horseradish peroxidase to the cut nerve. The nerves conveying gustatory information, chorda tympani (CT), greater superficial petrosal (GSP), lingual-tonsilar branch of IX (LT-IX), superior laryngeal branch of X (SL),(More)
Taste substances applied to the oral cavity result in either ingestion or rejection, each with a characteristic muscular response pattern. These responses are the same in decerebrate and intact rats; the caudal brainstem appears to be the neural substrate of ingestion and rejection responses. The experiment determined whether decerebrates can alter these(More)
Projections to the trigeminal, facial, ambiguus, and hypoglossal motor nuclei were determined by using horseradish peroxidase histochemistry. Most of the afferent projections to these motor nuclei were from the brainstem reticular formation, frequently in areas adjacent to other synergetic motor nuclei. The reticular formation lateral to the hypoglossal(More)
Previous behavior studies (Grill & Norgren, 1978) demonstrated that gustatory stimuli produce stereotyped orofacial movements that constitute the observable concomitants of ingestion and rejection. For further clarification of the relation between these orofacial movements (the buccal phase of ingestion) and the act of swallowing (the pharyngeal phase),(More)