Ralph M. Garruto

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Frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism, chromosome 17 type (FTDP-17), a recently defined disease entity, is clinically characterized by personality changes sometimes associated with psychosis, hyperorality, and diminished speech output, disturbed executive function and nonfluent aphasia, bradykinesia, and rigidity. Neuropathological changes include(More)
Pathological TDP-43 is the major disease protein in frontotemporal lobar degeneration characterized by ubiquitin inclusions (FTLD-U) with/without motor neuron disease (MND) and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As Guamanian parkinsonism–dementia complex (PDC) or Guamanian ALS (G-PDC or G-ALS) of the Chamorro population may present clinically similar(More)
Guamanian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-G) and parkinsonism dementia (PD-G) have been epidemiologically linked to an environment severely deficient in calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+). Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a bifunctional protein containing both channel and kinase domains that has been proposed to be involved in the(More)
Two related neurodegenerative disorders, Western Pacific amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia (PD), originally occurred at a high incidence on Guam, in the Kii peninsula of Japan, and in southern West New Guinea more than 50 years ago. These three foci shared a unique mineral environment characterized by the presence of severely low(More)
The PRNP polymorphic (methionine/valine) codon 129 genotype influences the phenotypic features of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. All tested cases of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJD) have been homozygous for methionine, and it is conjectural whether different genotypes, if they appear, might have distinctive phenotypes and implications(More)
We report the distribution and imaging of calcium and aluminum in neurofibrillary tangle (NFT)-bearing neurons within Sommer's sector of the hippocampus in Guamanian patients with parkinsonism-dementia, using a method of computer-controlled electron beam x-ray micro-analysis and wavelength dispersive spectrometry. Calcium and aluminum were distributed in(More)
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been implicated in the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus and have been reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of AGEs, amyloid beta protein (A beta), apolipoprotein E (ApoE), and tau protein in senile(More)
In the 1950s, the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, or Lytico) and parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC, or Bodig) on the island of Guam was much higher than anywhere else in the world. From the late 1960s to the early 1980s, the incidence of both disorders has decreased. The objective of the present study was to ascertain whether the(More)
Regardless of the host, the route of administration, or the speciation, aluminum is a potent neurotoxicant. In the young adult or developmentally mature host, the neuronal response to Al exposure can be dichotomized on morphological grounds. In one, intraneuronal neurofilamentous aggregates are formed, whereas in the other, significant neurochemical and(More)
Aluminium, an environmentally abundant non-redox trivalent cation has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the definite mechanism of aluminium toxicity in AD is not known. Evidence suggests that trace metal homeostasis plays a crucial role in the normal functioning of the brain, and any disturbance in it can(More)