Ralph Langner

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Last year marked a turning point in the history of cybersecurity-the arrival of the first cyber warfare weapon ever, known as Stuxnet. Not only was Stuxnet much more complex than any other piece of malware seen before, it also followed a completely new approach that's no longer aligned with conven tional confidentiality, integrity, and availability(More)
Animal studies have indicated the carcinogenic potential of ethylene dibromide (EDB). Examination of the mortality experience of employees exposed to EDB in two production units operated from 1942 to 1969 and from the mid-1920s to 1976, respectively, showed that in the first unit two deaths from malignant neoplasms were observed against 3.6 expected (based(More)
The mortality experience of 342 employees assigned to three aromatic amine-based dye production areas was examined in relation to duration of employment and interval since entry into these areas. No deaths due to bladder cancer were observed, and no statistically significant increases in mortality by work area or duration of exposure within work area were(More)
Two common over-the-counter medications may elevate urinary phenol to levels exceeding 75 mg/liter (ppm). This study presents data indicating that it is invalid to correct urinary phenol levels to specific gravity of 1.024. Animal studies indicate that having elevated urinary phenol levels secondary to phenyl salicylate ingestion are not harmful.
Many epidemiological problems are encountered in studies of mortality experience in industrial populations. The current study was undertaken to develop background data for a large chemical manufacturing company with emphasis on differentials in mortality associated with preselection factors, socioeconomic status, and general job categories. Statistically(More)
This paper outlines a novel approach towards industrial control system (ICS) security that is focused on effectiveness, scalability, and sustainability. Based on proven concepts from quality management, it is pointed out that risk management decision making is often mislead by insufficient cyber system understanding and lack of cyber governance, resulting(More)
It has been claimed that the implementation of occupational exposure limits has been instrumental for the near elimination of serious occupational disease in the Western world. Although exposure limits or guides for most large volume chemicals have been established, the majority of the 10,000 chemicals which are routinely used in industry do not have them.(More)