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BACKGROUND Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with(More)
Donald Lloyd-Jones, MD, ScM, FAHA; Robert J. Adams, MD, FAHA; Todd M. Brown, MD; Mercedes Carnethon, PhD, FAHA; Shifan Dai, MD, PhD*; Giovanni De Simone, MD; T. Bruce Ferguson, MD; Earl Ford, MD, MPH*; Karen Furie, MD; Cathleen Gillespie; Alan Go, MD; Kurt Greenlund, PhD*; Nancy Haase; Susan Hailpern, DPH; P. Michael Ho, MD, PhD; Virginia Howard, PhD, FAHA;(More)
BACKGROUND Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a(More)
BACKGROUND Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional(More)
Donald Lloyd-Jones, MD, ScM, FAHA; Robert J. Adams, MD, FAHA; Todd M. Brown, MD; Mercedes Carnethon, PhD, FAHA; Shifan Dai, MD, PhD*; Giovanni De Simone, MD; T. Bruce Ferguson, MD; Earl Ford, MD, MPH*; Karen Furie, MD; Cathleen Gillespie; Alan Go, MD; Kurt Greenlund, PhD*; Nancy Haase; Susan Hailpern, DPH; P. Michael Ho, MD, PhD; Virginia Howard, PhD, FAHA;(More)
BACKGROUND Although stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide, no comprehensive and comparable assessment of incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability, and epidemiological trends has been estimated for most regions. We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) to estimate the global and(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The aim of this investigation was to determine the importance of race as a determinant of intracranial atherosclerotic stroke in a community-based stroke sample. METHODS Residents from northern Manhattan over age 39 years hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke (n = 438, black 35%, Hispanic 46%, white 19%) were prospectively(More)
BACKGROUND Prolonged lowering of blood pressure after a stroke reduces the risk of recurrent stroke. In addition, inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system in high-risk patients reduces the rate of subsequent cardiovascular events, including stroke. However, the effect of lowering of blood pressure with a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor soon after a(More)