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BACKGROUND Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with(More)
BACKGROUND Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional(More)
BACKGROUND Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a(More)
BACKGROUND Although stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide, no comprehensive and comparable assessment of incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability, and epidemiological trends has been estimated for most regions. We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) to estimate the global and(More)
BACKGROUND Early seizure (ES) has been reported in 2% to 6% of strokes and is a predictor of recurrent seizures. Acute stroke has been reported to cause 22% of all cases of status epilepticus in adults. The determinants of ES and status epilepticus (SE) after stroke, however, are not well understood. METHODS An incidence study was conducted to identify(More)
We compared clinical and radiologic features between 246 cardiac embolism (EMB) and 66 arterial embolic (tandem arterial pathology [TAP]) patients selected from the 1,273 patients with cerebral infarction in the Stroke Data Bank. Diagnostic definitions accounted for the increased frequency of cardiac disease among patients with EMB compared with TAP (78.4%(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the independent association between physical activity and subclinical cerebrovascular disease as measured by silent brain infarcts (SBI) and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV). METHODS The Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS) is a population-based prospective cohort examining risk factors for incident vascular disease, and a(More)
BACKGROUND Global stroke epidemiology is changing rapidly. Although age-standardized rates of stroke mortality have decreased worldwide in the past 2 decades, the absolute numbers of people who have a stroke every year, and live with the consequences of stroke or die from their stroke, are increasing. Regular updates on the current level of stroke burden(More)
In a prospective study of 1,805 hospitalized patients in the Stroke Data Bank of the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, the 1,273 with infarction were classified into diagnostic subtypes. Diagnosis was based on the clinical history, examination, and laboratory tests including computed tomography, noninvasive vascular(More)
S troke ranks as the third leading cause of death in the United States. It is now estimated that there are more than 700 000 incident strokes annually and 4.4 million stroke survivors. 1,2 The economic burden of stroke was estimated by the American Heart Association to be $51 billion (direct and indirect costs) in 1999. 3 Despite the advent of treatment of(More)