Ralph L. Elkins

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Conditioned flavor aversions, readily established in rats by pairing a novel palatable flavor with radiation-induced or drug-induced illness, are highly efficient adjustments with implications for the treatment of alcoholism and obesity. Recent experiments show that such aversion acquisition is diminished by preconditioning familiarity with the conditioned(More)
Taste aversion (TA)-prone (TAP) and TA-resistant (TAR) rats were tested for naive, nonforced acceptance of ethanol. Ethanol acceptance had played no role in line development. Rather, the lines had been developed via bidirectional, nonsibling matings based on susceptibility to develop cyclophosphamide-induced conditioned TAs to a 0.1% saccharin solution (at(More)
More than 35,000 alcoholics have received chemical aversion (emetic therapy) in at least 75 settings worldwide since the 1930s. This consummatory aversion (CA) treatment, which pairs ethanol ingestion with emetically induced nausea, incorporates the highly efficient variety of learning known as taste aversion (TA) conditioning. The CA literature indicates(More)
We have previously reported the development of rat lines bred selectively for differences in taste aversion conditionability. Earlier studies demonstrated that the taste aversion resistant (TAR) animals exhibited lower concentrations of brain serotonin and consumed greater amounts of ethanol than their taste aversion prone (TAP) counterparts. In the present(More)
Possible biological contributions to taste aversion (TA) conditionability were explored by comparing whole-brain levels of five neurotransmitter amines and 14 common amino acids within TA-prone (TAP) and TA-resistant (TAR) rats. The selectively bred strains had been developed via 22 generations of bidirectional nonsibling matings based on susceptibility to(More)
Taste-aversion (TA)-prone (TAP) rats and TA-resistant (TAR) rats have been developed by means of bidirectional selective breeding on the basis of their behavioral responses to a TA conditioning paradigm. The TA conditioning involved the pairing of an emetic-class agent (cyclophosphamide) with a novel saccharin solution as the conditioned stimulus. Despite(More)
Both rats and alcoholic humans display considerable variability in acquisition of illness-induced consummatory aversions. Differential conditionability may be a significant modulator of outcome in alcoholics who elect taste aversion (TA) approaches to abstinence facilitation. This is a report of the ongoing development of rat strains suitable for studies of(More)