Ralph L. Brinster

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Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) self-renew and produce large numbers of committed progenitors that are destined to differentiate into spermatozoa throughout life. However, the growth factors essential for self-renewal of SSCs remain unclear. In this study, a serum-free culture system and a transplantation assay for SSCs were used to identify exogenous(More)
Microinjection of foreign DNA into fertilized mammalian eggs is a convenient means of introducing genes into the germ line. Some of the more important parameters that influence successful integration of foreign DNA into mouse chromosomes are described. The effects of DNA concentration, size, and form (supercoiled vs. linear with a variety of different ends)(More)
In the adult male, a population of diploid stem-cell spermatogonia continuously undergoes self-renewal and produces progeny cells, which initiate the complex process of cellular differentiation that results in mature spermatozoa. We report here that stem cells isolated from testes of donor male mice will repopulate sterile testes when injected into(More)
Cell fate determination between self-renewal or differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in the testis is precisely regulated to maintain normal spermatogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying the process remain elusive. To address the problem, we developed a model SSC culture system, first, by establishing techniques to obtain enriched(More)
Transgenic mice bearing the cellular myc oncogene coupled to the immunoglobulin mu or kappa enhancer frequently develop a fatal lymphoma within a few months of birth. Since the tumours represent represent both immature and mature B lymphocytes, constitutive c-myc expression appears to be highly leukaemogenic at several stages of B-cell maturation. These myc(More)
Recently a system was developed in which transplanted donor spermatogonial stem cells establish complete spermatogenesis in the testes of an infertile recipient. To obtain insight into stem cell activity and the behavior of donor germ cells, the pattern and kinetics of mouse spermatogonial colonization in recipient seminiferous tubules were analyzed during(More)
We inactivated the mouse metallothionein (MT)-I and MT-II genes in embryonic stem cells and generated mice homozygous for these mutant alleles. These mice were viable and reproduced normally when reared under normal laboratory conditions. They were, however, more susceptible to hepatic poisoning by cadmium. This proves that these widely expressed MTs are(More)
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the foundation for spermatogenesis and, thus, preservation of a species. Because of stem cell rarity, studying their self-renewal is greatly facilitated by in vitro culture of enriched biologically active cell populations. A recently developed culture method identified glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)(More)
Self-renewal and differentiation by spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is the foundation for continual spermatogenesis. SSC self-renewal is dependent on glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF); however, intracellular mechanisms stimulated by GDNF in SSCs are unknown. To investigate these mechanisms we utilized a culture system that maintains a(More)