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The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Version-2 Monthly Precipitation Analysis is described. This globally complete, monthly analysis of surface precipitation at 2.5Њ latitude ϫ 2.5Њ longitude resolution is available from January 1979 to the present. It is a merged analysis that incorporates precipitation estimates from low-orbit satellite(More)
This paper describes the latest improvements applied to the Goddard profiling algorithm (GPROF), particularly as they apply to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Most of these improvements, however, are conceptual in nature and apply equally to other passive microwave sensors. The improvements were motivated by a notable overestimation of(More)
The frequencies flown on the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) are sensitive to liquid water near the earth's surface. These frequencies are primarily atmospheric window channels, which receive the majority of their radiation from the surface. Liquid water near the surface depresses the emissivity as a function of wavelength. The relationship between(More)
Cloud droplet effective radius (DER) and liquid water path (LWP) are two key parameters for the quantitative assessment of cloud effects on the exchange of energy and water. Chang and Li presented an algorithm using multichannel measurements made at 3.7, 2.1, and 1.6 ␮m to retrieve a cloud DER vertical profile for improved cloud LWP estimation. This study(More)
—A 1-D variational system has been developed to process spaceborne measurements. It is an iterative physical inversion system that finds a consistent geophysical solution to fit all radiometric measurements simultaneously. One of the particular-ities of the system is its applicability in cloudy and precipitating conditions. Although valid, in principle, for(More)
[1] Warm rain occurs in low‐level liquid water clouds and does not involve an ice‐phase process. Comprising many state‐of‐the‐art passive and active instruments, the NASA A‐Train series of satellites provide comprehensive simultaneous information about warm clouds and their precipitation processes. This study exploits multi‐sensor data from the A‐Train(More)
[1] The albedo of marine stratocumuli depends upon cloud liquid water content, droplet effective radius (r e), and how these parameters vary with height. Using satellite data and shipborne data from the East Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) Stratocumulus Study, this study investigates the cloud r e vertical variation for drizzling and nondrizzling(More)
The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) 2A12 product consists of unique components configured for land and oceanic precipitation retrievals. This design was based on the vastly different physical characteristics of the retrieval, involving primarily emission over ocean and entirely scattering over land. This paper describes the(More)