Ralph Etienne-Cummings

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Upper limb prostheses are increasingly resembling the limbs they seek to replace in both form and functionality, including the design and development of multifingered hands and wrists. Hence, it becomes necessary to control large numbers of degrees of freedom (DOFs), required for individuated finger movements, preferably using noninvasive signals. While(More)
Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this(More)
As development toward multi-fingered dexterous prosthetic hands continues, there is a growing need for more flexible and intuitive control schemes. Through the use of generalized electrode placement and well-established methods of pattern recognition, we have developed a basis for asynchronous decoding of finger positions. With the present method,(More)
The fast pace of development of upper-limb prostheses requires a paradigm shift in EMG-based controls. Traditional control schemes are only capable of providing 2 degrees of freedom, which is insufficient for dexterous control of individual fingers. We present a framework where myoelectric signals from natural hand and finger movements can be decoded with a(More)
We present a multichip, mixed-signal VLSI system for spike-based vision processing. The system consists of an 80 x 60 pixel neuromorphic retina and a 4800 neuron silicon cortex with 4,194,304 synapses. Its functionality is illustrated with experimental data on multiple components of an attention-based hierarchical model of cortical object recognition,(More)
Traditionally, charge coupled device (CCD) based image sensors have held sway over the field of biomedical imaging. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based imagers so far lack sensitivity leading to poor low-light imaging. Certain applications including our work on animal-mountable systems for imaging in awake and unrestrained rodents require(More)
We describe in detail the behavior of an inhibitory Central Pattern Generator (CPG) network for robot control. A four-neuron, mutual inhibitory network forms the basic coordinating pattern for locomotion. This network then inhibits an eight-neuron network used to drive patterned movement. We show that we can get predictable control of important(More)
In limbed animals, spinal neural circuits responsible for controlling muscular activities during walking are called Central Pattern Generators (CPG). CPG networks display oscillatory activities that actuates individual or groups of muscles in a coordinated fashion so that the limbs of the animal are flexed and extended at the appropriate time and with the(More)
A current mode CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) providing linear light-to-current conversion with inherently low fixed pattern noise (FPN) is presented. The pixel features adjustable-gain current output using a pMOS readout transistor in the linear region of operation. This paper discusses the pixel’s design and operation, and presents an analysis of the(More)