Ralph E . Tarter

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Research on hepatic encephalopathy is hampered by the imprecise definition of this disabling complication of liver disease. Under this light, the Organisation Mondiale de Gastroentérologie commissioned a Working Party to reach a consensus in this area and to present it at the 11th World Congress of Gastroenterology in Vienna (1998). The Working Party(More)
OBJECTIVE This longitudinal study had three aims: 1) determine the extent to which boys at high average risk and low average risk for substance use disorder differ on a construct of neurobehavioral disinhibition, 2) evaluate the capacity of neurobehavioral disinhibition to predict substance use frequency at age 16, and 3) demonstrate the utility of(More)
Conduct disorder (CD) symptom counts in preadolescent boys, and antisocial personality disorder (ASP) and childhood conduct disorder symptom counts in their parents, were used as dimensional measures of behavioral deviation. A significant correlation was found for CD and ASP symptom counts between the two parents and between CD symptom counts of the(More)
OBJECTIVE This study had three purposes; (1) to assess the underlying factor structure of a battery of neuropsychological tests putatively measuring executive cognitive functioning (ECF) in a sample of boys at high and low risk for substance abuse/dependence; (2) to assess the relationship between ECF and aggressive behavior; and (3) to determine the(More)
BACKGROUND People in Appalachia experience some of the worst oral health in the United States. To develop effective intervention and prevention strategies in Appalachia, we must understand the complex relationships among the contributing factors and how they affect the etiology of oral diseases. To date, no such comprehensive analysis has been conducted.(More)
This study examined responses to peer provocation in boys ages 9-13 years who met symptomatic criteria for ADHD-only, ODD/CD-only, comorbid ADHD/ODD/CD, or no diagnosis. Boys participated in a reaction-time game that included standardized verbal and behavioral provocation. Their behavioral, physiological, and affective responses to this task were measured.(More)
Variation in the risk for and severity of substance use disorders (SUD) in the population is caused by multiple organismic (genetic, biochemical, psychological) and environmental factors. Whereas drug- or drug-class-specific liability mechanisms exist, a substantial proportion of variance in the risk is shared between specific liabilities, reflecting(More)
Male and female adolescents who qualified for a DSM-III-R diagnosis of Alcohol Abuse or Dependence and a control sample of nonalcohol-abusing male and female adolescents were administered a battery of intellectual, achievement, and neuropsychologic tests. Alcohol-abusing adolescents were found to have significantly lower verbal and full-scale IQ scores than(More)
Approximately 5% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance use disorder (SUD). Low affect and behavior self-regulation during child development interacting with family, peer and other ecological factors predisposes to substance use in adolescence. Maturational processes during adolescence, particularly involving the brain and(More)
Liabilities to complex disorders, discussed in the accompanying paper, present difficulties in measurement related to the arbitrariness of diagnostic threshold definitions and problems with discrimination between trait values, especially within the 'normal' individuals. The inability to quantitatively estimate the risk for a disorder, such as substance use(More)